Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Cichorium intybus L. seed extract in ischemia/reperfusion injury model of rat spinal cord


  • Neda Ghaffari Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Gholamreza Hassanzadeh Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Azin Nowrouzi Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Morteza Gholaminejhad Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Tahmineh Mokhtari Nervous System stem cells Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
  • Rahimeh Seifali Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Ibrahim Mohammed Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Akbari Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Cichorium intybus L., spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion, inflammation, oxidative stress


Objectives: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of chicory seed (CSE, Cichorium intybus L. seed) following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (SCI/R) injury in rat model were evaluated.

Methods: In this study 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided to six groups:  control (Co), sham (Sh), CSE, SCI/R, CSE+SCI/R (7 days pretreatment with CSE group+inducing I/R injury), SCI/R +CSE (induced I/R injury group+3 days treatment with CSE). SCI/R injury was induced by creating a longitudinal incision on the midline of abdominal region and clamping the aorta just below renal artery for 30 minutes. After 3 days, SC was removed and used for evaluation of antioxidant enzymes (including Superoxide dismutase [SOD] and catalase [CAT]), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA]), inflammatory factors (IL1β, IL18 & TNFα) and histopathological changes. Before sacrificing the animals, the motional score were assessed.

Results: Our results demonstrated that, in the SCI/R group, the mean  levels of SOD, and CAT were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the mean level of MDA was significantly increased (P<0.05) in comparison to Co and Sh groups. Also, the mean levels of SOD and CAT in the treatment group were higher than the SCI/R group (P<0.05), while, the mean MDA content in the treatment group was significantly less than the SCI/R group (P <0.05). In addition, comparison between SCI/R and treatment groups demonstrated a significant decrease in tissue damage in the treatment group.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that, the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Cichorium intybus L. seed on SCI/R injury in rat by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Additionally, comparing the treatment and pretreatment groups shows that the pretreatment usage of the extract is more effective than treatment group.


1. Gholaminejhad M, Arabzadeh S, Akbari M, Mohamadi Y, Hassanzadeh G. Anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects of flaxseed on experimental unilateral spinal cord injury in rat. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences. 2017;3(10):213-7.
2. de Rivero Vaccari JP, Dietrich WD, Keane RW. Therapeutics targeting the inflammasome after central nervous system injury. Translational Research. 2016;167(1):35-45.
3. Fan M, Lu M, Shi X. Study on the effects of IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury of rats. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2017;10(4):6184-90.
4. Zhu P, Li J-x, Fujino M, Zhuang J, Li X-K. Development and treatments of inflammatory cells and cytokines in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mediators of inflammation. 2013;2013.
5. Pishva AA, Akbari M, Farahabadi A, Arabkheradmand A, Beyer C, Dashti N, et al. Effect of estrogen therapy on TNF-α and iNOS gene expression in spinal cord injury model. Acta medica Iranica. 2016;54(5):296-301.
6. de Rivero Vaccari JP, Lotocki G, Marcillo AE, Dietrich WD, Keane RW. A molecular platform in neurons regulates inflammation after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuroscience. 2008;28(13):3404-14.
7. Farahabadi A, Akbari M, Pishva AA, Zendedel A, Arabkheradmand A, Beyer C, et al. Effect of progesterone therapy on TNF-α and iNOS gene expression in spinal cord injury model. Acta medica Iranica. 2016;54(6):345-51.
8. Klebanoff S, Vadas M, Harlan J, Sparks L, Gamble J, Agosti J, et al. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor. The Journal of Immunology. 1986;136(11):4220-5.
9. Mulligan MS, Varani J, Dame MK, Lane CL, Smith CW, Anderson DC, et al. Role of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) in neutrophil-mediated lung injury in rats. The Journal of clinical investigation. 1991;88(4):1396-406.
10. Taoka Y, Okajima K, Murakami K, Johno M, Naruo M. Role of neutrophil elastase in compression-induced spinal cord injury in rats. Brain research. 1998;799(2):264-9.
11. Taoka Y, Okajima K, Uchiba M, Murakami K, Kushimoto S, Johno M, et al. Role of neutrophils in spinal cord injury in the rat. Neuroscience. 1997;79(4):1177-82.
12. Carden DL, Granger DN. Pathophysiology of ischaemia–reperfusion injury. The Journal of pathology. 2000;190(3):255-66.
13. Aruoma OI. Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease. Journal of the American oil chemists' society. 1998;75(2):199-212.
14. Choobineh H, Gilani MAS, Pasalar P, Jahanzad I, Ghorbani R, Hassanzadeh G. The effects of testosterone on oxidative stress markers in mice with spinal cord injuries. International journal of fertility & sterility. 2016;10(1):87.
15. Bagheri A, Talei S, Hassanzadeh N, Mokhtari T, Akbari M, Malek F, et al. The neuroprotective effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on functional motor recovery in a model of ischemic brain stroke: Upregulation of BDNF and GDNF. Acta Medica Iranica. 2018;55(12):785-92.
16. Ahmed N. Alloxan diabetes-induced oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative defense system in rat brain: neuroprotective effects of cichorium intybus. Int J Diabetes & Metabolism. 2009;17:105-9.
17. Al-Snafi AE. Medical importance of Cichorium intybus–A review. IOSR J Pharm. 2016;6(3):41-56.
18. Ghannadi A, Minaiyan M, Abed A. Kasni (Cichorium intybus L.). 2011.
19. Pinent M, Castell A, Baiges I, Montagut G, Arola L, Ardévol A. Bioactivity of flavonoids on insulin‐secreting cells. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2008;7(4):299-308.
20. Ziamajidi N, Khaghani S, Hassanzadeh G, Vardasbi S, Ahmadian S, Nowrouzi A, et al. Amelioration by chicory seed extract of diabetes-and oleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) via modulation of PPARα and SREBP-1. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;58:198-209.
21. Yuksel Y, Guven M, Kaymaz B, Sehitoglu MH, Aras AB, Akman T, et al. Effects of aloe vera on spinal cord Ischemia–Reperfusion injury of rats. Journal of Investigative Surgery. 2016;29(6):389-98.
22. Smith PD, Puskas F, Meng X, Lee JH, Cleveland JC, Weyant MJ, et al. The evolution of chemokine release supports a bimodal mechanism of spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2012;126(11 suppl 1):S110-S7.
23. Lu K, Cho C-L, Liang C-L, Chen S-D, Liliang P-C, Wang S-Y, et al. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway reduces microglial activation and interleukin-1-beta expression in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2007;133(4):934-41.
24. Fansa I, Altug M, Melek I, Ucar E, Kontas T, Akcora B, et al. The neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of diltiazem in spinal cord ischaemia–reperfusion injury. Journal of International Medical Research. 2009;37(2):520-33.
25. Hirose K, Okajima K, Taoka Y, Uchiba M, Tagami H, Nakano K-y, et al. Activated protein C reduces the ischemia/reperfusion-induced spinal cord injury in rats by inhibiting neutrophil activation. Annals of surgery. 2000;232(2):272.
26. Martinon F, Mayor A, Tschopp J. The inflammasomes: guardians of the body. Annual review of immunology. 2009;27:229-65.
27. Gross O, Thomas CJ, Guarda G, Tschopp J. The inflammasome: an integrated view. Immunological reviews. 2011;243(1):136-51.
28. Dubinsky JM, Kristal BS, Elizondo-Fournier M. An obligate role for oxygen in the early stages of glutamate-induced, delayed neuronal death. Journal of Neuroscience. 1995;15(11):7071-8.
29. Cheeseman K. Mechanisms and effects of lipid peroxidation. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1993;14(3):191-7.
30. Paradis V, Mathurin P, Kollinger M, Imbert-Bismut F, Charlotte F, Piton A, et al. In situ detection of lipid peroxidation in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with pathological features. Journal of clinical pathology. 1997;50(5):401-6.
31. Ege E, Ilhan A, Gurel A, Akyol O, Ozen S. Erdosteine ameliorates neurological outcome and oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbit spinal cord. European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery. 2004;28(4):379-86.
32. Kiziltepe U, Turan NND, Han U, Ulus AT, Akar F. Resveratrol, a red wine polyphenol, protects spinal cord from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of vascular surgery. 2004;40(1):138-45.
33. Savas S, Delibas N, Savas C, Sütçü R, Cindas A. Pentoxifylline reduces biochemical markers of ischemia-reperfusion induced spinal cord injury in rabbits. Spinal cord. 2002;40(5):224.
34. Ginsberg MD. REVIEWâ– : Neuroprotection in Brain Ischemia: An Update (Part I. The Neuroscientist. 1995;1(2):95-103.
35. White BC, Sullivan JM, DeGracia DJ, O’Neil BJ, Neumar RW, Grossman LI, et al. Brain ischemia and reperfusion: molecular mechanisms of neuronal injury. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2000;179(1-2):1-33.
36. Gilgun-Sherki Y, Rosenbaum Z, Melamed E, Offen D. Antioxidant therapy in acute central nervous system injury: current state. Pharmacological reviews. 2002;54(2):271-84.
37. Fan L, Wang K, Shi Z, Die J, Wang C, Dang X. Tetramethylpyrazine protects spinal cord and reduces inflammation in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of vascular surgery. 2011;54(1):192-200.
38. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Asl MN, Sadeghnia HR, Ziaee T. Effect of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa seeds oil on lipid peroxidation level during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(9):621-7.
39. Jamshidzadeh A, Khoshnood MJ, Dehghani Z, Niknahad H. Hepatoprotective activity of Cichorium intybus L. leaves extract against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2010:41-6.
40. Yao X, Zhu L, Chen Y, Tian J, Wang Y. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase, α-amylase inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds. Food chemistry. 2013;139(1-4):59-66.
41. Khalatbary AR. Natural polyphenols and spinal cord injury. Iranian biomedical journal. 2014;18(3):120.
42. Sadeghi N, Dianat M, Badavi M, Malekzadeh A. Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Chichorium intybus on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine. 2015;5(6):568.
43. Hassan HA, Yousef MI. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-supplemented diet against nitrosamine precursors-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48(8-9):2163-9.



How to Cite

Ghaffari, N., Hassanzadeh, G., Nowrouzi, A., Gholaminejhad, M., Mokhtari, T., Seifali, R., Mohammed, I., & Akbari, M. (2018). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Cichorium intybus L. seed extract in ischemia/reperfusion injury model of rat spinal cord. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 4(4), 195–201.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>