Explaining the Concept of Learning Based on Reflection in Clinical Education: Scoping Review


  • Soleiman Ahmady Head of Department of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Affiliated Faculty at Department of LIME, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
  • Zahra Ayazi Department of Medical Education,Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Masomeh Kalantarion Department of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Nasrin Khajeali Department of Medical Education, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.




Reflection, Clinical education, Scoping Review, Nursing, Theoretical Model


Objective: This study was conducted with the aim of theoretically explaining the concept of reflection in medical science education in texts and identifying the dimensions and characteristics of education based on reflection and their application in clinical nursing education and existing models in 2021.

Methods: This scoping review was conducted in five phases following the method developed by Denyer and Tranfield. The scope of the review was limited to Reflection and Reflective in nursing education. Using the keywords in combination and separately, they were searched in databases of ERIC/ www.iranmedex.com/ www.magiran.com/ www.irandoc.ac.ir/ www.sid.ir/ www.medlib.ir/ All Sciences/ Web of Science / Search Engines Google/ Google scholar/ Scopus/ Ovid/ ERIC/ Wiley / PubMed and Science Direct from1970s to 2021.

Results: Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles and documents were selected. During the theoretical explanation of the concepts and components of reflection in clinical nursing education, the model is abstracted. In this model: The Clinical education triangle has 3 main components in its three angles: patient, teacher, or tutor, and student. It is necessary that the sides of this triangle including teaching-learning, teaching-caring, and caring-learning to be formed in the best way and to serve the student and the patient.

Conclusions: The results of this study emphasize the practical and constructive nature of knowledge in learning based on reflection and its special position so that by eliminating the gap between theory and practice in nursing education, one can see the excellence of the operational part of education and promotion of the level of health of the society by providing an appropriate performance of the nursing staff.


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How to Cite

Ahmady, S., Ayazi, Z., Kalantarion, M., & Khajeali, N. (2021). Explaining the Concept of Learning Based on Reflection in Clinical Education: Scoping Review. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v7i6.1109