The Development of Supervisory Functions as Experienced by Attending Physicians and Medical Trainees: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis


  • Soleiman Ahmady Head of Department of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Masoumeh Seidi Ph.D. Candidate of Medical Education, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Supervision; Medical Trainees; Attending physicians; management; Support; Education


Objectives: this study aimed to identify the core components of supervisory functions experienced by attending physicians and medical trainees.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on the directed content analysis. Intentional sampling with maximum variation was used to select the required participants among medical trainees and attending physicians in teaching hospitals at Shahid Beheshti and Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A semi-structured interview was used as the most important method of data collection in this study. Data saturation was reached after interviewing 20 participants.

Results: In this study, 11 categories were identified through performing the interviews. Management supervision includes Academic Discipline and Monitor and follows the implementation of the curriculum. The themes of educational supervision were as follows: Empowering of non-faculty educators, Control over trainees' academic achievement, Supervision of trainees' performance, and Activities’ educators of evaluation Supportive supervision included improving trainees’ resilience, Provide functional support and Diversity and condition of providing support services. As well, the fourth theme from the participants’ initial codes was observed to be professionalism, including Professional accountability and Respect for patient rights.

Conclusions: This study highlighted the important aspects for which clinical supervision functions need to be improved, to maximize their benefit to medical students. Supervisors are responsible to ensure these three functions occur across the course. Care must be taken to ensure that one function does not become the focus.


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How to Cite

Ahmady, S., & Seidi, M. (2021). The Development of Supervisory Functions as Experienced by Attending Physicians and Medical Trainees: A Qualitative Directed Content Analysis. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 7(4), 202–210.