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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

Submission of Manuscripts

All submissions must follow the instructions and advice on how to submit manuscripts, which is available at the web site.

  • Total file size is limited to ≤ 20 MB including figures and tables.
  • The manuscript file must be submitted as a Microsoft Word file, including title page, abstract, text, COI disclosure, references, and figure legends. Number all pages consecutively in this order.
  • The manuscripts should be typed double-spaced throughout with ≥ 12-point type face, formatted for A4 paper leaving margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 inch).
  • Figures must be submitted as JPEG, PNG, or GIF files.


  • Experimental studies on animals must include a statement that the studies meet appropriate ethical standards of the responsible committee. The authors should state in the text whether the procedures followed in experiments on human subjects were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional review board) or with the Declaration of Helsinki 1964, and its later amendments. The authors should also obtain written informed consent from subject included in the study, and state such information in the text. A PDF of the statement of approval of the study by institutional or regional review board should be attached. Details in the text, figures, photographs that might disclose identity of subjects should be omitted to preserve subjects’ anonymity. The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the Journal’s ethical standards. The authors are responsible when any faulty statement is disclosed.

Randomized Controlled Trial Registry:

Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment. Authors should describe the registration number at the end of the abstract and in the session of Materials and Methods of the text.

Conflicts of Interest (COI):

  • All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment consultancy relationship, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding, etc.

Title Page

The title page should carry the following:

  • Concise but informative title of the article. Chemical formulas or abbreviations should not be used, but long common terms such as names of compounds or enzymes can be abbreviated.
  • All authors’ full names without academic degrees.
  • Full names of the department(s) and institution(s) in which the research was done, together with the location (city, state, and nation). If the article has several authors from different institutions, it should be clearly indicated with which department and institution each author is affiliated using superscript numbers.
  • Key words, limited to five words or short phrases, taken from Index Medicus or composed by analogy on the same principles.
  • A brief running head, not to exceed 60 characters (count letters and spaces). Abbreviations defined in the text can be used.
  • Corresponding author’s name, full address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address.


  • Not exceed 300 words (approximately 1 page of A4) in length.
  • State the purpose of the investigation, then describe the study design or experimental procedure, main findings or major contributions, and finally the specific conclusion or recommendation, in a 4 paragraphs  with specific ( Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusion ) subheadings.
  • Provide enough information for the Abstract to be easily understood without reference to the text, and emphasize new and important aspects of the study.


  • Avoid nonstandard abbreviations, unfamiliar terms or symbols, and laboratory jargon. Abbreviations should be kept to an absolute minimum; but if necessary, they must be spelled out at first mention. Standard metric units (mm, cm, ml, l, mg, g, msec, sec, min, hr, etc.) can be used throughout without definition.

Structure of Original/Research Articles:


  • Give concise background information relevant to the study and the questions the study seeks to answer. The readers should be able to understand why the study was done.

Materials and Methods:

  • Describe subjects, materials, and methods used, including experimental design or procedures, in sufficient detail to enable the readers to evaluate and/or reproduce the results. Subjects should be described appropriately to show that the control and experimental groups contained matched subjects
  • Designate drugs by their generic names; but for particular chemicals or equipment, the brand names and locations of the supplier (city, state, and nation) should be given in parentheses.
  • Describe statistical methods and details of randomization or blinded observations. Specify the numbers of observations made and individuals who could not be followed up until the end of the study.
  • Protect patient anonymity by avoiding details that might identify patients unless essential for scientific purposes. Masking of the eye region in photographs of patients may be inadequate. If identification of patients is unavoidable, written permission should be obtained.


  • Include only the data and illustrative materials that are pertinent to the subject of the article.
  • Avoid repetition of all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text, but do emphasize or summarize important trends or observations.
  • Avoid duplicate presentation of the same data in both tabular and graphic forms.


  • Interpret the present data concisely, giving particular attention to the question or hypothesis posed in the Introduction section. Information presented in the previous sections should not be repeated.
  • Include discussion of previous works that not only agree but also disagree with the present results.
  • State the conclusions or recommendations that can be directly drawn from the present results. Logical implications of the present findings for practical applications or future studies are permissible, but unsubstantiated speculations must not be included.


  • State personal or institutional contributions, and financial or material support. Supply full information for nature of support (technical help, critical review, data collection, and participation in clinical trial), number of grants-in-aid, and name and location of institution or organization.

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure:

  • All authors must state any actual or potential conflicts of interest with regard to the manuscript submitted for review under a heading of “Conflicts of Interest Disclosure’’ following the “Acknowledgment’’ section. Authors should also state if there are no conflicts of interest.


  • Number references consecutively in the order cited in the text, not alphabetically. If no person or organization can be identified as the author and no editors or translators are given, begin the reference with the title of the article..
  • All the references should be cited in the article as superscript numbers . Papers accepted but not yet published can be included in the reference list, but papers in preparation, unpublished observations, and personal communication should be noted in parentheses in the text.
  • Follow Vancover style.


  • Cite all figures in the text, and number consecutively in the order cited in the text.
  • Titles and detailed explanations should be given in the legends, not on the figures. All abbreviations used in each figure should be explained in each legend.
  • Figure legends should provide a brief, self-sufficient explanation of the illustrations. Describe the staining method and original magnification for photomicrographs, and bar measurements for electron micrographs.
  • If a figure has already been published, obtain permission to reproduce or modify from the copyright holder, and acknowledge the original source in the legend.


  • Cite all tables in the text, and number consecutively according to appearance in the text.
  • Type each table on a separate page, supplying a brief title and explanatory footnotes. All abbreviations used in each table should be explained in the footnotes.
  • Each column must carry an appropriate heading, and units in numerical measurements should be added to the column heading in parentheses.
  • If data can be described in one or two sentences in the text, do not present them in a table.


Correspondence concerning editorial problems should

be addressed to:




Authorship statement - copyright(PDF)


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