Nano-encapsulated tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil as a sustained release nano-larvicide


  • Mahmoud Osanloo Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hassan Sereshti Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
  • Amir Amani Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.



Objective: In recent years, essential oil-based larvicides have been introduced as alternatives to industrial ones. However, an appreciable formulation of essential oils with prolonged larvicidal activity (LA) has not yet been developed.

Methods: In this study, tarragon essential oil (TEO) was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles using ion gelation technique. Physicochemical properties and duration of LA of the prepared nanoformulation were investigated.

Results: Encapsulation efficiency of the optimum nanoformulations with a particle size of 168±90 nm was calculated as 39.66% using UV-Vis analysis. Encapsulating TEO in chitosan-TPP nanocapsules was shown to increase its efficiency in LA at SSF test: Perfect LA (100% mortality) was achieved at lower concentration (i.e. 31 μg mL-1 instead of 80 μg mL-1). Also, perfect LA continued for 4 and 3 days, compared with 2 days and 1 day for the non-encapsulated form of TEO in the lab and SFF tests, respectively. Besides, the duration of LA of nanoformulation was significantly longer than its corresponding microformulation with the same concentration of ingredients. Furthermore, the concentration of TEO in the solution tests was also monitored and it was found that the nanoformulations provide a sustained release of TEO. Moreover, there was a logical relationship between LA and concentration of TEO in different hours.

Conclusion: This prepared nanoformulation could be introduced as an interesting alternative to synthetic larvicides, due to its easy and fast method of preparation and its green constituents.


1. WHO World Malaria Report 2016 2016. Available from:
2. Bellan SE. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control. PLoS One 2010; 5:e10165.
3. Sumitha K, Thoppil JE. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L.(Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology research 2016; 115:673-680.
4. Osanloo M, Sereshti H, Sedaghat MM, Amani A. Nanoemulsion of Dill essential oil as a green and potent larvicide against Anopheles stephensi. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2018; 25:6466-6473.
5. Peiris H, Hemingway J. Temephos resistance and the associated cross-resistance spectrum in a strain of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) from Peliyagoda, Sri Lanka. Bulletin of Entomological Research 1990; 80:49-55.
6. Wirth MC, Georghiou G. Selection and characterization of temephos resistance in a population of Aedes aegypti from Tortola, British Virgin Islands. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 1999; 15:315-320.
7. Melo-Santos M, Varjal-Melo J, Araújo A, Gomes T, Paiva M, Regis L, et al. Resistance to the organophosphate temephos: mechanisms, evolution and reversion in an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain from Brazil. Acta tropica 2010; 113:180-189.
8. Rodríguez MM, Bisset J, Ruiz M, Soca A. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides induced by selection with temephos in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cuba. Journal of medical entomology 2002; 39:882-888.
9. Soltani A, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Ravasan NM, Enayati AA, Asgarian F. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) to Temephos. Journal of arthropod-borne diseases 2015; 9:71.
10. Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd A. Current resistant status of Anopheles stephensi liston to different larvicides in hormozgan province, southeastern Iran, 2004. Pak J Biol Sci 2005; 8:1568-1570.
11. Vatandoost H, Mashayekhi M, Abaie M, Aflatoonian M, Hanafi-Bojd A, Sharifi I. Monitoring of insecticides resistance in main malaria vectors in a malarious area of Kahnooj district, Kerman province, southeastern Iran. Journal of vector borne diseases 2005; 42:100-108.
12. Li J, Li Y, Dong H. Controlled release of herbicide acetochlor from clay/carboxylmethylcellulose gel formulations. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2008; 56:1336-1342.
13. Maji TK, Baruah I, Dube S, Hussain MR. Microencapsulation of Zanthoxylum limonella oil (ZLO) in glutaraldehyde crosslinked gelatin for mosquito repellent application. Bioresource Technology 2007; 98:840-844.
14. Paula HC, de Oliveira EF, Abreu FO, de Paula RC. Alginate/cashew gum floating bead as a matrix for larvicide release. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2012; 32:1421-1427.
15. Badawy ME, Taktak NE, Awad OM, Elfiki SA, El-Ela NEA. Larvicidal activity of temephos released from new chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens. Int J Mosq Res 2015; 2:45-55.
16. Bhan S, Mohan L, Srivastava C. Relative larvicidal potentiality of nano-encapsulated Temephos and Imidacloprid against Culex quinquefasciatus. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 2014; 17:787-791.
17. Sanei-Dehkordi A, Sedaghat MM, Vatandoost H, Abai MR. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and Its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Comparison with Citrus paradisi. J Arthropod Borne Dis 2016; 10:577-585.
18. Osanloo M, Amani A, Sereshti H, Shayeghi M, Sedaghat MM. Extraction and chemical composition essential oil of Kelussia odoratissima and comparison its larvicidal activity with Z-ligustilide (Major Constituent) against Anopheles stephensi. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2017; 5:611- 616.
19. Vivekanandhan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Shivakumar MS. Larvicidal, pupicidal and adult smoke toxic effects of Acanthospermum hispidum (DC) leaf crude extracts against mosquito vectors. Physiological & Molecular Plant Pathology 2018; 101:156-162.
20. Jinu U, Rajakumaran S, Senthil-Nathan S, Geetha N, Venkatachalam P. Potential larvicidal activity of silver nanohybrids synthesized using leaf extracts of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hook. f. and Strychnos nux-vomica L. nux-vomica against dengue, Chikungunya and Zika vectors. Physiological & Molecular Plant Pathology 2018; 101:163-171.
21. Yang F-L, Li X-G, Zhu F, Lei C-L. Structural characterization of nanoparticles loaded with garlic essential oil and their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2009; 57:10156-10162.
22. Duarte JL, Amado JRR, Oliveira AEMFM, Cruz RAS, Ferreira AM, Souto RNP, et al. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2015; 25:189-192.
23. Sugumar S, Clarke S, Nirmala M, Tyagi B, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bulletin of entomological research 2014; 104:393-402.
24. da CR Rodrigues E, Ferreira AM, Vilhena JC, Almeida FB, Cruz RA, Florentino AC, et al. Development of a larvicidal nanoemulsion with Copaiba (Copaifera duckei) oleoresin. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2014; 24:699-705.
25. Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Formulation and Characterization of Plant Essential Oil Based Nanoemulsion: Evaluation of its Larvicidal Activity Against Aedes aegypti. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2013; 25:S321-S323.
26. Anjali C, Sharma Y, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion—a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus. Pest management science 2012; 68:158-163.
27. Shahriyary L, Yazdanparast R. Inhibition of blood platelet adhesion, aggregation and secretion by Artemisia dracunculus leaves extracts. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2007; 114:194-198.
28. Sayyah M, Nadjafnia L, Kamalinejad M. Anticonvulsant activity and chemical composition of Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2004; 94:283-287.
29. Osanloo M, Amani A, Sereshti H, Abai MR, Esmaeili F, Sedaghat MM. Preparation and optimization nanoemulsion of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil as effective herbal larvicides against Anopheles stephensi. Industrial Crops and Products 2017; 109:214-219.
30. (WHO) WHO. Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides 2005. Available from:
31. Hosseini SF, Zandi M, Rezaei M, Farahmandghavi F. Two-step method for encapsulation of oregano essential oil in chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and in vitro release study. Carbohydrate Polymers 2013; 95:50-56.
32. Mohammadi A, Hashemi M, Hosseini SM. Nanoencapsulation of Zataria multiflora essential oil preparation and characterization with enhanced antifungal activity for controlling Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mould disease. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 2015; 28:73-80.
33. Esmaeili A, Asgari A. In vitro release and biological activities of Carum copticum essential oil (CEO) loaded chitosan nanoparticles. International journal of biological macromolecules 2015; 81:283-290.
34. Paula HC, Sombra FM, de Freitas Cavalcante R, Abreu FO, de Paula RC. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2011; 31:173-178.
35. Nation JL. Insect physiology and biochemistry: CRC press; 2008.




How to Cite

Osanloo, M., Sedaghat, M. M., Sereshti, H., & Amani, A. (2019). Nano-encapsulated tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) essential oil as a sustained release nano-larvicide. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 5(2), 82–89.