Role of Apo-lipoprotein A1 as cardiac biomarker for severity of coronary atherosclerosis
Keywords:coronary artery disease (CAD), Apolipoprotein A1, left main stem disease (LMD)
Objective Coronary heart disease (CAD) is the most prevalent chronic disease and the main leading cause of death in the world, with more
than half a million newly diagnosed CAD patients each year. The development of atherosclerosis involves the interaction of multiple
metabolic and cellular processes. Central to this are disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. Apolipoprotein A-I is the major protein component
of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. Chylomicrons secreted from the intestinal enterocyte also contain Apo A-I, but it is quickly
transferred to HDL in the blood stream. The aim of this study is to determine if Apo-A1 can be used as indicator to severity and extent of CAD.
Methods This study was conducted in cardiac catheterisation unit at Al Hussein Medical city from November 2014 to September 2015. It included
76 patients (49 males and 27 females) who presented with signs and symptoms of CAD and have undergone angiography. Control group
consisted of 20 healthy subjects (14 males and 6 females) matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of Apo-A1 were measured in both groups. After
coronary angiography was done for all patients, the extent and severity of CAD was correlated with serum levels of Apo-A1. The extent of CAD
was determined by angiography, according to number of coronary arteries involved and degree of narrowing in coronary artery diameter.
Results The angiographic finding in patient group was normal in 22 patients (28.9%), single vessel involvement in 15 patients (19.7%), two
vessels disease in 15 patients (19.7%) and three vessels disease in 18 patients (23.8%). The left main stem disease (LMD) was found in
6 patients (7.9%). There was no significant difference in the serum level of Apo-A1 between patient with CAD and control group (P = 0.147).
There was no significant correlation between serum level of Apo-A1 and the extent CAD (r = 0.004, P = 0.975).
Conclusion There was no significant difference in serum level of Apo-A1 between the patients group and the control group. Also, there was
no significant correlation between serum level of Apo-A1 and the extent of CAD.