Advanced oxidation protein products levels and Paraoxonase 1(Arylesterase) activity in patients with thyrodisim


  • Hadeel Abdul Latif Jouad Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Shatha Abdul Wadood AL- Shammaree Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.



Thyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, Aryl esterase activity


Objectives: The purpose of study was to explore the correlation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), which reflect the oxidation of protein and the oxidative stress status, and the activity of antioxidant enzyme of Paraoxonase (PON1), using its arylesterase activity in patients with thyrodisim.

Methods: The study included 100 women with newly diagnosed thyrodisim were subdivided in two groups according to thyroid hormones levels: hyperthyroidism group (50 female patients, age range 18-60 years); and hypothyroidism group (50 female patients, age range 18-75 years). A control group (30 healthy females, age range 18–70 years) was also included for comparison. Demographic and clinical measurements for all participants were recorded which include: Body mass index (BMI), age, weight, height, lipid profile, vitamin D, thyroid hormones (TSH, T3, and T4, FT3, FT4), AOPP levels, and arylesterase activity.

Results: The serum level of AOPP in hypothyroidism group (71.92±19.04 μmol/L) and in hyperthyroidism group (30.41±4.72 μmol/L) were significantly higher than controls (13.12±2.50 μmol/L) (P<0.05). In contrast, lower aryl esterase activity was found in hypothyroidism (5.03±0.50 U/L), and hyperthyroidism (3.64±0.40 U/L) when compared to control group (6.78±0.62 Ku/L) with significant values (P< 0.05).

Conclusions: these results disclosed a significant role of protein oxidation in patients with hypothyroidism as well as the oxidative stress status.


Földi M, Földi E, Strößenreuther R, Kubik S, editors. Földi's textbook of lymphology: for physicians and lymphedema therapists. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012 Feb. 21p20.

Wang, H.-Q.; Zhang, W.-D.; Yuan, B.; Zhang, J.-B. Advances in the

Regulation of Mammalian Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Secretion. Animals 2021, 11, 1134.

Hall, J. E. (2015). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology e-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences

Tomasz Bednarczuk , Roberto Attanasio , Laszlo Hegedüs , Endre V. Nagy , Roberto Negro , Enrico Papini , Petros Perros , Marek Ruchała Endokrynologia Polska Use of thyroid hormones in hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. DOI: 10.5603/EP.a 2021.0048 Volume/Tom 72; Number/Numer 4/2021 ISSN 0423–104X, e-ISSN 2299–8306

- Roy Moncayo, and Helga Moncayo,. Practical Guidelines for Diagnosing and Treating Thyroid Disease Based on the WOMED Metabolic Model of Disease Focusing on Glycolysis and Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency A Clinical Alternative to the 2021 Retired Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Endocrine Society Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 107;

Rasool Mahmood, Malik Arif, Saleem Shamaila, Ashraf Muhammad Abdul Basit, Khan Altaf Qadir, Waquar Sulayman, Zahid Ayesha, Shaheen Sumaira, Abu-Elmagd Muhammad, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Pushparaj Peter Natesan. Role of Oxidative Stress and the Identification of Biomarkers Associated With Thyroid Dysfunction in Schizophrenics. Frontiers in Pharmacology 12, 2021. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.646287

- Witko-Sarsat V, Friedlander M, Capeillere-Blandin C, et al. Advanced oxidation protein products as a novel marker of oxidative stress in uremia. Kidney Int 1996;49:1304–13.

- Capeillere-Blandin C, Gausson V, Descamps-Latscha B, Witko-Sarsat V. Biochemical and spectrophotometric significance of advanced oxidized protein products. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;1689:91–102.

Camps, J.; Marsillach, J.; Joven, J. The paraoxonases: Role in human diseases and methodological difficulties in measurement. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 2009, 46, 83–106.

- Barsotti A, Fabbi P, Fedele M, et al. Role of advanced oxidation protein products and thiol ratio in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Clin Biochem 2011;44:605–11.

Leocádio, Paola Caroline Lacerda; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Santos, Itamar Souza; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Bensenor, Isabela Martins; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura. Lower paraoxonase 1 paraoxonase activity is associated with a worse prognosis in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in long-term follow-up

Coronary Artery Disease, Volume 33, Number 7, 12 September 2022, pp. 515-522(8)


Zhou, C., Zhang, Y., Chen, J. et al. Association between serum advanced oxidation protein products and mortality risk in maintenance hemodialysis patients. J Transl Med 19, 284 (2021).

Camps, J.; Castañé, H.; Rodríguez-Tomàs, E.; Baiges-Gaya, G.; Hernández-Aguilera, A.; Arenas, M.; Iftimie, S.; Joven, J. On the role of paraoxonase-1 and chemokine ligand 2 (C-C motif) in metabolic alterations linked to inflammation and disease. A 2021 Update. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 971.

Tavori, H.; Khatib, S.; Aviram, M.; Vaya, J. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Characterization of the PON1 active site using modeling simulation, in relation to PON1 lactonase activity. Bioorganic Med. Chem. 2008, 16, 7504–7509.

Shekhanawar, M.; Shekhanawar, S.M.; Krisnaswamy, D.; Indumati, V.; Satishkumar, D.; Vijay, V.; Rajeshwari, T.; Amareshwar, M. The role of “paraoxonase-1 activity” as an antioxidant in coronary artery diseases. J. Clin. Diagnostic Res. 2013, 7, 1284–1287.

Freese, R.; Alfthan, G.; Jauhiainen, M.; Basu, S.; Erlund, I.; Salminen, I.; Aro, A.; Mutanen, M. High intakes of vegetables, berries, and apples combined with a high intake of linoleic or oleic acid only slightly affect markers of lipid peroxidation and lipoprotein metabolism in healthy subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002, 76, 950–960. [CrossRef]

- Capeillere-Blandin C, Gausson V, Descamps-Latscha B, Witko-Sarsat V. Biochemical and spectrophotometric significance of advanced oxidized protein products. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004;1689:91–102

Witko-Sarsat V, Friedlander M, Capeillere-Blandin C, Nguyen-Khoa T, Nguyen At, Zingraff J, Jungers P, Deschamps-Latscha B: Advanced oxidation protein products as a novel marker of oxidative stress in uraemia. Kidney Int 49: 1304-1313, 1996.

Shen H, Li M, Wang B, Lai IK, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. Dietary antioxidants (selenium and N-acetylcysteine) modulate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in PCB 126-exposed rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014; 21(10):6384-6399

Mancini, A.; Di Segni, C.; Raimondo, S.; Olivieri, G.; Silvestrini, A.; Meucci, E.; Curro, D. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation. Mediat. Inflamm. 2016, 2016, 6757154.

- Witko-Sarsat V, Gausson V, Descamps-Latscha B. Are advanced oxidation protein products potential uremic toxins? Kidney Int Suppl. 2003; 84: 11–14.

-P. Codoñer-Franch, S. Tavárez-Alonso, R. Murria-Estal, M. Tortajada-Girbés, R. Simó-Jordá, E. Alonso-Iglesias. Elevated advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) indicate metabolic risk in severely obese children. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 22 (2012), pp. 237-243

- Villalpando Sánchez DC, Alvarez Aguilar C, Gómez García A. Advanced oxidation protein products and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in young apparently healthy people. Clin Invest Arterioscler. 2017;29:209---215.

- M.M. Duarte, R.N. Moresco, T. Duarte, A. Santi, M.D. Bagatini, I.B. da Cruz, et al. Oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemia and its association with Ala16Val superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism. Clin Biochem, 43 (2010), pp. 1118-1123

- S.X. Liu, F.F. Hou, Z.J. Guo, R. Nagai, W.R. Zhang, Z.Q. Liu, et al. Advanced oxidation protein products accelerate atherosclerosis through promoting oxidative stress and inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 26 (2006), pp. 1156-1162

- N.R. Madamanchi, M.S. Runge. Mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 100 (2007), pp. 460-473

(27) Haneen Muhanedalnajer, Shatha Abdul Wadood AL-Shammaree and Isam N. Salman. Determination Of Advanced Oxidative Protein Products Levels And Its Correlation With Inflammation In Diabetic Foot Patients. Biochem. Cell. Arch. Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 5843-5847, 2020

Cohen, E.; Aviram, M.; Khatib, S.; Artoul, F.; Rabin, A. Free Radical Biology and Medicine Human carotid plaque phosphatidylcholine speci fi cally interacts with paraoxonase 1, increases its activity, and enhances its uptake by macrophage at the expense of its binding to HDL. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2014, 76, 14–24.

-M. A. Ahmed, Sh. A. Wadood, Q. A. Mahdi. Assessment of follicular fluid paraoxonase activity with pregnancy outcomes in

women undergoing IVF/ICSI. Egypt. J. Chem. Vol. 64, No. 6 pp. 2895 - 2902 (2021)

- Azizi F, Raiszadeh F, Solati M, Etemadi A, Rahmani M, Arabi M. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is decreased in thyroid dysfunction. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003 Aug;26(8):703-9. doi: 10.1007/BF03347350. PMID: 14669822.

- Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Masciangelo S, Bicchiega V. HDL-paraoxonase and membrane lipid peroxidation: A comparison between healthy and obese subjects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:1079–84.

- Al-Naimi MS, Hussien NR, Rasheed HA, Al-Kuraishy HM, Al-Gareeb AI. Levothyroxine improves Paraoxonase (PON-1) serum levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism: Case-control study. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2018 Jul-Sep;9(3):113-118. doi: 10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_298_18. PMID: 30338238; PMCID: PMC6174702.




How to Cite

Abdul Latif Jouad, H. ., & AL- Shammaree , S. A. W. . (2023). Advanced oxidation protein products levels and Paraoxonase 1(Arylesterase) activity in patients with thyrodisim. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 9(1).