Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors among General Populations in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Duhok Province, Iraq

Authors

  • Lina Yousif Mohammed Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Zakho, Zakho Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Shaker A Jamal Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Zakho, Zakho Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Nawfal R Hussein Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Zakho, Zakho Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • Ibrahim A Naqid Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Zakho, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v7i6.1073

Keywords:

Vitamin D deficiency, General population, Duhok province, Kurdistan, Iraq

Abstract

Objectives:  This study aimed to determine the serum levels of 25(OH) D3 and associated risk factors in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 

Methods: A cross- sectional study was performed from January 2019 to September 2019 among the general population in Dohuk and Zakho cities. 1143 of subjects were recruited in this study and aged ranged from 9 months to 86 years old (36.31± 17.61). Serum 25(OH) D3 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

 

Results: Of 1143 subjects, 229 (44.9%) people were suffered from vitamin D deficiency in Duhok city and 241(38.19%) from Zakho city. There was significant difference between the incidence of vitamin D in both cities (p<0.067). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 152 (37.8%) in male and 318 (43.03%) in females. There was no significantly associated with low level of vitamin D between genders (p<0.133). The low level of Vitamin D was more frequently found in age group between 20-40 years old (46.23%), with sufficient differences between age group (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is much predominant in Duhok province, younger adults and female population. Our finding also found that the low level of vitamin D deficiency in older people. Further studies are required to investigate the pathophysiology of hypovitaminosis D and its clinical consequences.

References

1. Basit S. Vitamin D in health and disease: a literature review. British journal of biomedical science. 2013;70(4):161-72.
2. Pedersen JI. Vitamin D requirement and setting recommendation levels - current Nordic view. Nutrition reviews. 2008;66(10 Suppl 2):S165-9.
3. Guessous I, Bochud M, Bonny O, Burnier M. Calcium, vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Kidney & blood pressure research. 2011;34(6):404-17.
4. Gagnon C, Lu ZX, Magliano DJ, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study). Diabetes care. 2011;34(5):1133-8.
5. Cutolo M, Plebani M, Shoenfeld Y, Adorini L, Tincani A. Vitamin D endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases. Vitamins & Hormones. 86: Elsevier; 2011. p. 327-51.
6. Giordano N, Goracci A, Fagiolini A. Depression and vitamin D deficiency: causality, assessment, and clinical practice implications. Neuropsychiatry. 2017;7(5):606–14.
7. Brewer L, Williams D, Moore A. Current and future treatment options in osteoporosis. European journal of clinical pharmacology. 2011;67(4):321-31.
8. Vanga SR, Good M, Howard PA, Vacek JL. Role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health. The American journal of cardiology. 2010;106(6):798-805.
9. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, Orav JE, Stuck A, Theiler R, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Bmj. 2009;339:b3692.
10. Joshi D, Center JR, Eisman JA. Vitamin D deficiency in adults. 2010.
11. Sayed-Hassan R, Abazid N, Alourfi Z. Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, serum calcium, and parathyroid hormone in apparently healthy Syrian people. Archives of osteoporosis. 2014;9(1):176.
12. Badawi A, Arora P, Sadoun E, Al-Thani A-A, Thani MHA. Prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in qatar: a systematic review. J Public Health Res. 2012;1(3):229-35.
13. Palacios C, Gonzalez L. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2014;144 Pt A:138-45.
14. Wei J, Zhu A, Ji JS. A comparison Study of Vitamin D Deficiency among Older Adults in china and the United States. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1):1-11.
15. Jain R. Variability in the levels of vitamin D by age, gender, and race/ethnicity: data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. J Nutr Health Sci. 2016;3(2):203.
16. Sadat-Ali M, Al Elq AH, Al-Turki HA, Al-Mulhim FA, Al-Ali AK. Influence of vitamin D levels on bone mineral density and osteoporosis. Annals of Saudi medicine. 2011;31(6):602-8.
17. Agarwal K, Mughal M, Upadhyay P, Berry J, Mawer E, Puliyel J. The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi, India. Archives of disease in childhood. 2002;87(2):111-3.
18. Vieth R, Cole D, Hawker G, Trang H, Rubin L. Wintertime vitamin D insufficiency is common in young Canadian women, and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2001;55(12):1091-7.
19. Brock K, Wilkinson M, Cook R, Lee S, Bermingham M. Associations with Vitamin D deficiency in "at risk" Australians. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2004;89-90(1-5):581-8.
20. Harris SS. Vitamin D and african americans. The Journal of nutrition. 2006;136(4):1126-9.
21. Wacker M, Holick MF. Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health. Dermato-endocrinology. 2013;5(1):51-108.
22. Gallagher JC. Vitamin D and aging. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics. 2013;42(2):319-32.
23. Maldonado G, Paredes C, Guerrero R, Ríos C. Determination of Vitamin D Status in a Population of Ecuadorian Subjects. The Scientific World Journal. 2017;2017.

Downloads

Published

2021-10-27

How to Cite

Mohammed, L. Y., Jamal, S. A., Hussein, N. R., & Naqid, I. A. (2021). Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and associated risk factors among General Populations in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq: Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Duhok Province, Iraq. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v7i6.1073