Echium amoenum from viewpoint of Avicenna: a brief review
AbstractEchium amoenum, also named Gol-e-gavzaban in Persian, from boraginaceae family is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants, is distributed in the Northern region of Iran, as well as Europe and Mediterranean region. E. amoenum is traditionally used as herbal tea in Iranian traditional medicine for conditions such as common cold, bronchitis, stress and fatigue. It also possesses diaphoretic, diuretic and blood rectifying properties. The dried violet–blue petals of Iranian Borage are used as general tonic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and anti-tussive according to the Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). In this review article, the uses of E. amoenum as explained by Avicenna book II, Canon of medicine, book of Al-Adviah-Al-ghalbiah, and various databases of the latest scientific studies are discussed and compared. Using the experiences of old scientists in the botanical field and the properties of herbal medicines, as well as adapting new findings to old knowledge, can help us improve our understanding of prevention and treatment.It can also lead to obtain safe and cheap drugs. However, there are many common characteristics about the pharmacological properties of this plant in modern medicine and Iranian traditional medicine, but more research is needed to prove the safety and efficacy of the plant.
2. Abolhassani M. Antiviral activity of borage (Echium amoenum). Arch Med Sci [Internet]. 2010 Jun 30 [cited 2018 Apr 14];6(3):366–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22371772
3. Setayesh M, Zargaran A, Sadeghifar AR, Salehi M, Rezaeizadeh H. New candidates for treatment and management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) based on Avicenna’s teachings in the Canon of Medicine. Integr Med Res [Internet]. 2018 Feb 20 [cited 2018 Mar 12]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213422017302196
4. Zamansoltani F, … MN-A-, 2008 U. Hepatotoxicity effects of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in rats. pharmacologyonline.silae.it [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2018 Feb 16]; Available from: http://pharmacologyonline.silae.it/files/archives/2008/vol1/42_Farzaneh.pdf
5. Bakhshaei S. SUPPLEMENT ISSUE: Biological Science PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT OF NINE MEDICINAL PLANTS AS A TRADITIONAL TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION. 2017 [cited 2018 Feb 15];8(2):76–81. Available from: http://www.iioab.org/IIOABJ_8.S2_76-81.pdf
6. Gholamzadeh S, Zare S, Of MI-RJ, 2008 U. Anxiolytic effect of Echium amoenum during different treatment courses. docsdrive.com [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2018 Feb 11]; Available from: http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/medwelljournals/rjbsci/2008/176-178.pdf
7. Mansouri S. Inhibition of Staphylococcus Aureus Mediated by Extracts from Iranian Plants. Pharm Biol [Internet]. 1999 Jan 29 [cited 2018 Apr 15];37(5):375–7. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1076/phbi.37.5.375.6058
8. Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malaieri A. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2018 Feb 26];33:1513–6. Available from: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0278584609002814/1-s2.0-S0278584609002814-main.pdf?_tid=spdf-fa3842cd-88ff-49c7-ba3f-1dca1466fdc7&acdnat=1519620589_e0b956d3a117e42f21ac5d3e77295cb6
9. Gonzalez C, Sanz J, Marcos G, … SP-CE, 1993 U. Borage consumption as a possible gastric cancer protective factor. researchgate.net [Internet]. 1993 [cited 2018 Apr 15]; Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose_Miguel_Sanz-Anquela/publication/14812828_Borage_consumption_as_a_possible_gastric_cancer_protective_factor/links/00b49517ae5226ff35000000.pdf
10. Naseri N, Kalantar K, Amirghofran Z. Anti-inflammatory activity ofEchium amoenumextract on macrophages mediated by inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines expression. Res Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2018 Feb [cited 2018 Mar 5];13(1):73–81. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29387114
11. Uysal H, Kızılet H, Ayar A, Taheri A. The use of endemic Iranian plant, Echium amoenum , against the ethyl methanesulfonate and the recovery of mutagenic effects. Toxicol Ind Health [Internet]. 2015 Jan 6 [cited 2018 Apr 15];31(1):44–51. Available from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0748233712468019
12. Bekhradnia S, Ebrahimzadeh MA. Antioxidant Activity of Echium amoenum. REVCHIM(Bucharest)♦ [Internet]. 2016;67(2). Available from: http://www.revistadechimie.ro
13. Safaeian L, Javanmard S, … MG-A journal of, 2015 U. Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of Echium amoenum anthocyanin-rich extract in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2017 Dec 25]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4418065/
14. Adel Pilerood S, Prakash J. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis). J Food Sci Technol [Internet]. 2014 May 3 [cited 2018 Feb 16];51(5):845–54. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13197-011-0573-z
15. Farahani M. Antiviral Effect Assay of Aqueous Extract of Echium Amoenum-L Against HSV-1. zjrms.ir [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 Apr 15]; Available from: http://zjrms.ir/browse.php?a_code=A-10-1602-1&slc_lang=en&sid=1&sw=Antiviral+effect
16. Mohsen A, Abolhassani M. Antibacterial Effect of Borage (Echium amoenum) on Staphylococcus aureus. BJID Brazilian J Infect Dis [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2018 Mar 7];88(5):382–5. Available from: www.bjid.com.br
17. Wainwright PE, Huang Y-S, DeMichele SJ, Xing H, Liu J-W, Chuang L-T, et al. Effects of high-γ-linolenic acid canola oil compared with borage oil on reproduction, growth, and brain and behavioral development in mice. Lipids [Internet]. 2003 Feb [cited 2018 Apr 15];38(2):171–8. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1007/s11745-003-1048-2
18. Hamidi E, Of MK-J of KU, 2014 U. The Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Echium Amoenum and Citrus Aurantiflia on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate before and after phynelephrine Injection in Rat. eprints.kmu.ac.ir [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Apr 15]; Available from: http://eprints.kmu.ac.ir/22754/
19. Mehrabani M, Ghannadi A, Sajjadi E, Ghassemi N, Shams-ardakani M. Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids of Echium Amoenum. Daru. 2006;14(3):122–8.
20. Heinrich M, Kufer J, … ML-J of, 2006 U. Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology—Interdisciplinary links with the historical sciences. Elsevier [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2018 Apr 15]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874106002959
21. Balunas MJ, Kinghorn AD. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life Sci [Internet]. 2005 Dec 22 [cited 2018 Jan 10];78(5):431–41. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320505008799
22. Butler MS. The Role of Natural Product Chemistry in Drug Discovery †. J Nat Prod [Internet]. 2004 Dec [cited 2018 Apr 15];67(12):2141–53. Available from: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np040106y
23. Ashtiyani S, Shamsi M, … AC-I journal of, 2011 U. A critical review of the works of pioneer physicians on kidney diseases in ancient Iran: Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-akhawayni, and Jorjani. search.proquest.com [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2018 Apr 15]; Available from: http://search.proquest.com/openview/e33d4e5dc74738409889d5f2b81f673b/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=105769
24. Sina I. Al-qanun fi al-tibb [the canon of medicine]. Alaalami Libr Beirut. 2005;437(5):48–51.
25. Borghei HR. The Book on Drugs for Cardiovascular Diseases, Nashre Ney/Tehran (2009) Imenshahidi et al., No Title. 2010.
26. Khorasani MHA. Makhzan al Advieh. Tehran, Iran Bavardaran Press Res Inst Islam Complement Med Iran Univ Med Sci. 2001;
27. Araj Khodaei M, Noorbala AA, Parsian Z T. Avicenna (980-1032CE): The pioneer in treatment of depression. Transylvanian Rev 2017 [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Apr 16];xxv(17):4376–89. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&q=6.+Araj+Khodaei+M,+Noorbala+AA,+Parsian+Z,+Taheri+Tarighi+S,+Emadi+F,+Alijaniha+F,+Naseri+M,+Zargaran+A.+Avicenna+(980-1032CE)%3A+The+pioneer+in+treatment+of+de-+pression.+Transylvanian+Review+2017%3B+
28. Tajbakhsh H, editor. Tehran: Tehran University Publication; 2006. Ismaeil Jorjani SI. Al-Aghraz al-Tibbiyahva al-Mabahes al-Alaiyah. (Medical Goals Allaii’s Discussions) p. 13. 98, 201, 238, 623.
29. NIE K. Sharhe Asbaab-o-Alaamaat of Samarghandi. Qom Jalal al-Di. 2008;
30. Kaplan V, Sadock B. Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry. In: Arjmand M, editor. 5th ed. Tehran: Arjmand Publication; 2010. pp. 210–215.
31. Dos J, Maldonado-Menetti S, Vitor Ii T, Leão RC, Iii E, Amá F, et al. Borage oil attenuates progression of cardiac remodeling in rats after myocardial infarction. Acta Cirúrgica Bras. 2016;31(313):2016–191.
32. R. Veenhoven. Healthy happiness: effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health. J Happiness Stud [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2018 Mar 4];9:449–69. Available from: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10902-006-9042-1.pdf
33. Naseri N, Kalantar K, Amirghofran Z. Anti-inflammatory activity of Echium amoenum extract on macrophages mediated by inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines expression. Res Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2018 Feb [cited 2018 Feb 13];13(1):73–81. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29387114
34. Sayyah M, Siahpoosh A, … HK-I journal of, 2012 U. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the aqueous extract of Echium amoenum for patients with general anxiety disorder. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 Apr 16]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832167/
35. Anonymous. 1998. Al-Qanun fil-Tibb, (English Translation) Book, (original Author-Avicenna), Vol: 2. Department of Islamic Studies: New Delhi, Jamia Hamdard;415_417.
36. Ghods R, Gharooni M, Amin G, … EN-IRC, 2014 U. Hypertension from the perspective of Iranian traditional medicine. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Apr 16]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005451/
37. AMIR G, Azadbakht M, Keshavarzi F. Echium amoenum stimulate of lymphocyte proliferation and inhibit of humoral antibody synthesis. 2000 [cited 2018 Apr 16]; Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mohammad_Azadbakht2/publication/316508962_Echium_amoenum_stimulate_of_Lymphocyte_Proliferation_and_Inhibit_of_humeral_Antibody_Synthesis/links/590182a34585156502a0968a/Echium-amoenum-stimulate-of-Lymphocyte-Proliferation-and-Inhibit-of-humeral-Antibody-Synthesis.pdf
38. . MRH, . AM, . AH, . MV. Anticonvulsant Effect of Methanolic Extract of Echium amoenum Fisch and C.A. Mey. Against Seizure Induced by Picrotoxin in Mice. Pakistan J Biol Sci [Internet]. 2006 Apr 1 [cited 2018 Apr 16];9(4):772–6. Available from: http://www.scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2006.772.776
39. Beiraghdar F, Einollahi B, Ghadyani A, Panahi Y, Hadjiakhoondi A, Vazirian M, et al. A two-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Viola odorata, Echium amoenum and Physalis alkekengi mixture in symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) men. Pharm Biol. 2017;55(1):1800–5.
40. Moosavi M, Jalali A, Kianipour F, ISMJ AS-, 2014 U. Assessing Mutagenicity of Methanolic Exteract of Borage Flower (Echium amuenum) Using Ames Bioassay. ismj.bpums.ac.ir [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Apr 16]; Available from: https://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=543&slc_lang=en&sid=1&printcase=1&hbnr=1&hmb=1
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.