Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis in Patients with Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

  • Jawad Abdul-Hassan Masser Al-Sadiq Teaching Hospital, Babil Health Directorate, Ministry of Health, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Mazin J. Mousa College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
  • Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Noor S.K. Al-Khafaji Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Hussein O.M. Al-Dahmoshi Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Zena Abdul-Ameer Mahdi Ahl-Albait University, College of pharmacy, Karbala, Iraq.
  • Samah Ahmed Kadhum College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Safa Jihad Hameed College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
  • Suhad H. Obeed College of Pharmacy, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.

Abstract

Objective:
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Calcium (Ca) and Phosphate (Ph) homeostasis and their association with plasma 25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (VitD3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with recurrent nephrolithiasis.
Methodology:
A cross-sectional involved 100 confirmed patients with renal stones (RS). Their serum levels of Ca, PTH, Ph, and VitD3 had assessed. Biochemical analysis of renal calculi and crystals had been investigated also. The summary measures had described as mean+/-SD for continuous variables and frequencies/percentage for nominal variables. The mean serum Ca, Ph, PTH, and VitD3 were (8.01±2.2mg/dl, 2.9±1.2mg/dl, 56.7±24.7pg/dl, and 7.03±4.2pg/ml), respectively.
Results:
Almost all patients (97%) had a positive history of the previous RS with a predominant family history in most instances (82%). There was a positive non-significant correlation between VitD3 with serum Ph and Ca. Whereas an inverse non-significant correlation between PTH with serum Ca and VitD3 had observed. Urinary crystals analysis revealed that uric acid represented 53% of the total crystals, followed by Ca-oxalate. Stone analyses revealed that around 3/4th of the cases had Ca-oxalate stone, followed by Ca-oxalate with uric acid, then Ca-phosphate and the least type was mixed stone types.
Conclusion:
There was a positive non-significant correlation between VitD3 with serum Ph and Ca. There was an inverse non-significant correlation between PTH with serum Ca and VitD3. Serum Ca, and Ph were non-significant predictors of renal stones and/or urinary crystals.
share this Article by

References

1. Stamatelou KK FM, Jones CA, Nyberg LM, Curhan GC. Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–1994. Kidney Int. 2003;63:1817–23.
2. Venkatesan S, Chakkarai K, Arulvijayavani S, Senthilkumar GP, Manikandan R, Kalyaperumal M. Association between vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and inflammatory markers in urolithiasis patients. 2017;6(4):240-3.
3. Bartoletti R CT, Mondaini N, Melone F, Travaglini F, Carini M, et al. . . Epidemiology and risk factors in urolithiasis. Urol Int 2007;79:3-7.
4. Goodman H. Basic medical endocrinology. 4th ed. Kuo RL LJ, Evan AP, editor. London: Elsevier; 2009. 197-218 p.
5. Taylor EN, Hoofnagle AN, Curhan GC. Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones and risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2015;10(4):667-75.
6. Hai Wang LM, Guizhong Li, Guanglin Huang and Ning Liu. Association between serum vitamin D levels and the risk of kidney stone: evidence from a meta-analysis. Nutrition Journal 2016;15(32):5.
7. Feramarz Mohammadalibeigi MS, Mahsa Motamedi. The effect of serum levels of vitamin D in stone recurrencein patients with urinary tract stone. J Renal Inj Prev 2018;7(2):6.
8. Foundation NK. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2003;42(4 Suppl 3):S1-201.
9. Pipili C, Oreopoulos DG. Vitamin D status in patients with recurrent kidney stones. Nephron Clinical practice. 2012;122(3-4):134-8.
10. Criseno S VJ, Nightingale P, Gittoes N A Retrospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and its Impact on the Biochemical and Clinical Presentations of Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Endocrinol Metab Syndr. 2019;8(1):298.
11. Shakhssalim N. GK, Parvin M. et akl. . An assessment of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3, estradiol and testosterone in men with active calcium stone disease and evaluation of its biochemical risk factors. Urol Res 2011;39:7.
12. Peretokina EV MN, Rozhynskaya LYa, Egshatyan LV. State of bone metabolism in patients with urolithiasis Endocrine Abstracts. 2014;35:1.
13. Netelenbos JC JM, van der Vijgh WJ, et al. . Vitamin D status in urinary calcium stone formation. Arch Intern Med 1985;145:681–4.
14. Fallahzadeh M. F. JZ, Al-Hashemi G., Derakhshan Ali , et al. Elevated Serum Levels of Vitamin D in Infants With Urolithiasis. Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2012;6(3):6.
15. Sandro GIANNINI MN, Rocco CASTRIGNANO, Tecla PATl, Andrea TAKA, Giorgio VILLI', Federico PELLEGRINI and Angela D'ANGELO. Possible link between vitamin D and hyperoxaluria in patients with renal stone disease. Clinical Science. 1993;84:4.
16. Hilal N. ; Mohsin M.; IbraheemN.; Suleiman S.;Assim H. AF. Case Control Study: Estimation of Vitamin D Deficiency in Relation to Urinary Stones Formation among Tikritmale Population. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2019;13(4):6.
17. Ertan P TG, Oger N, Alkan S, Horasan GD. Metabolic and demographic characteristics of children with urolithiasis in Western Turkey. Urol Res. 2011;39:105-10.
18. Yun S. HY, Kim w. et al,. Role of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone in patients with calcium urolithiasis. THE JOURNAL OF UROLOGY. 2011;185:2.
19. Qi WLMCMLHMSTYLL. Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms and the urolithiasis risk: an updated meta-analysis based on 20 case–control studies. Urolithiasis. 2013;42:8.
20. Wentao Liu MC, Mengjun Li, Hong Ma, Shiyu Tong, Ye Lei, Lin Qi. Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms and the urolithiasis risk: an updated meta-analysis based on 20 case–control studies. Urolithiasis. 2014;42:45–52.
21. Lin Y MQ, Zheng X, Chen H, Yang K, Xie L. Vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphisms and the risk of urolithiasis: a meta-analysis. Urol Int. 2011;86:249–55.
22. M.B.S. A-S. D76V, L161R, and C117S are the most pathogenic amino acid substitutions with several dangerous consequences on leptin structure, function, and stability. Egypt J Med Hum Genet. 2019;20(32):1-12.
23. Romero V. AH, and Assimos D. Kidney stones: A global picture of prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Review in urology. 2010;12(86).
24. Feldman D. Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Calcium: A Complex Regulatory Network. Am J Med. 1999;107:637– 9.
25. Cipriani C BF, Costa AG, Zhang C, Biondi P, Diacinti D, et al. . Prevalence of kidney stones and vertebral fractures in primary hyperparathyroidism using imaging technology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(4):1309-15.
26. Tassone F GL, Baffoni C, Visconti G, Pellegrino M, Cassibba S, et al. . Vitamin D status in primary hyperparathyroidism: a Southern European perspective. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;79(6):784-90.
27. P. V. Primary hyperparathyroidism and nephrolithiasis. Ann Endocrinol. 2015;76:116–9.
28. Ketha H SR, Grebe SK, Bergstralh EJ, Rule AD, Lieske JC, et al. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers. PLoS ONE 2015;10(9):11.
29. O'Seaghdha CM WH, Yang Q, Kapur K, Guessous I, Zuber AM, et al. . . 2013; 9(9):. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies six new Loci for serum calcium concentrations. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(9).
30. Ozkaya O, Söylemezoğlu O, Misirlioğlu M, Gönen S, Buyan N, Hasanoğlu E. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene and the risk of calcium nephrolithiasis in children. European urology. 2003;44(1):150-4.
31. Girón-Prieto MS, Del Carmen Cano-García M, Arrabal-Polo M, Poyatos-Andujar A, Quesada-Charneco M, de Haro-Muñoz T, et al. Analysis of vitamin D deficiency in calcium stone-forming patients. International urology and nephrology. 2016;48(8):1243-6.
32. Vezzoli G, Caumo A, Baragetti I, Zerbi S, Bellinzoni P, Centemero A, et al. Study of calcium metabolism in idiopathic hypercalciuria by strontium oral load test. Clinical chemistry. 1999;45(2):257-61.
33. Howles SA, Thakker RV. Genetics of kidney stone disease. Nature Reviews Urology. 2020;17(7):407-21.
34. Hopp K, Cogal AG, Bergstralh EJ, Seide BM, Olson JB, Meek AM, et al. Phenotype-Genotype Correlations and Estimated Carrier Frequencies of Primary Hyperoxaluria. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2015;26(10):2559-70.
35. Torres RJ, Puig JG. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007;2:48-.
36. Schlingmann KPR, Justyna K.,et al. Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in SLC34A1 Encoding Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter 2A Cause Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2016;27(2):604-14.
37. Fouad Shareef Dleikh AJA-A, Rebee Mohin, Mazin Jaafar Mousa, Hayder Abdul-Amir Makki Al-Hindy , Basim Abd Al-Ka’abi. Possible cause-and-effect linkage of transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelets derived growth factor-AB with delayed anthropometric parameters in adolescent patients with Cooley’s anemia: Cases vis control research strategy. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences. 2020;14(1):7.
38. Hayder AA. Al-Hindy MJMAK, Raghdan Z. Al-Saad, Widad HD. Relationship of levels of transforming growth factorbeta1 (TGF-β1) to the levels of ferritin in blood of transfusion dependent β-thalassemia major patients with growth retardation: A case-control study EurAsian J Biosci. 2020;14(1):521-52.
39. Mazin J. Mousa HSAS, Hayder Abdul-Amir Maki Al-Hindy. Low Level Laser (Biophotomodulation) Therapy for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers with 532 nm KTP Laser Induces Wound Healing, Fibroblast Proliferation and Over-expression of TGF. Sys Rev Pharm 2020;11(6):396 403.
40. Steiger S, Grill JF, Ma Q, Bäuerle T, Jordan J, Smolle M, et al. Anti-Transforming Growth Factor β IgG Elicits a Dual Effect on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization and Progressive Nephrocalcinosis-Related Chronic Kidney Disease. Frontiers in immunology. 2018;9:619.
41. Yasui T. OA, Taguchi K. et al, . Association between urolithiasis and food intake based on data from a Japanese national survey. The Journal Of Urology. 2011;185:2.
42. Hashim HO, Al-Saadi AH, Haider AH, Zaidan HK. Association of Uromodulin rs13333226 and Angiotensinogen rs699 genes variants with essential hypertension in Arab Iraqis of Babylon province. Research Journal Of Pharmaceutical Biological And Chemical Sciences. 2015;6(6):589-601.
Published
2021-12-26
How to Cite
MASSER, Jawad Abdul-Hassan et al. Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis in Patients with Recurrent Nephrolithiasis. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 6, dec. 2021. ISSN 2413-0516. Available at: <http://www.jocms.org/index.php/jcms/article/view/1040>. Date accessed: 25 jan. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.22317/jcms.v7i6.1040.