Obesity, Quality of Sleep and Anxiety in Saudi Arabia
AbstractObjectives: The aim is to determine an association between obesity levels, quality of sleep, and anxiety among the Saudi population.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was used by distributing an online questionnaire via social media channels to the Saudi population. We used the body mass index (BMI) to assess body fat, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder – 7 (GAD-7). Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to test associations with a p-value of less than 0.05.
Results: We received a total of 1123 respondents and the majority (61%) were obese and overweight. According to the GAD-7 score, 17% had severe anxiety; the PSQI score was 8.42 +3.45, indicating overall poor sleep quality. Underweight respondents had higher moderate (25%) and severe (26%) anxiety as compared to those with normal or higher BMI (14%-18%) (p=0.002). PSQI scores were higher for obese (8.9+3.6) and overweight (8.6+3.4) respondents as compared to underweight (7.5+3.0) (p=0.001). Persons with severe (10.4+3.6) or moderate (9.7+3.7) anxiety had higher PSQI scores as compared to those with minimal anxiety (6.8+2.7) (p<0.001).
Conclusion: There is a relationship between obesity, sleep, and anxiety. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with anxiety and poor sleep quality in Saudi Arabia.
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