Oral health of children in association with gender and mothers’ education: a comparative cross-sectional study
AbstractObjectives: To evaluate the association between gender and mothers' education, and the oral hygiene of their children.
Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study included 531 children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Arabic was chosen for this survey to avoid possibilities of language barriers, followed by data analysis and segregation from the survey. Students were stratified according to gender and their mother’s education. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25.
Results: Brushing twice daily, using the dental floss, using fluoridated toothpaste, using mouthwash regularly, and bruxism were higher among females than males (58% VS 28%, 28.2% VS 10.9%, 71% VS 30%,55% VS 35% and 16.5% VS 9.8% respectively) with a significant difference (p<0.001, <0.001, <0.001, <0.001 and <0.001 respectively). Meanwhile, using toothpick, clenching, and biting on hard objects were higher among males than females
49.3% VS 34.9%, 21.7% VS 7.1% and 46.7% VS 34.9% respectively) with a significant difference (<0.001 and <0.001, respectively).
Going to dentists during the last three months was significantly higher among females than males (47% vs. 33%), with a significant difference (p<0.001). On the other hand, going to dentists every six months was notably higher among males than females (22% vs. 17%) (p<0.001). Regular check-ups were higher among females (27.8% vs. 16.7%), with a significant difference (p=0.007). In accordance with the mothers' education, brushing more than twice daily, manual toothbrush, electrical toothbrush, dental floss, and using toothpaste were significantly higher among those who received a university and post-graduate education (p<0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.049, respectively). Going to dentists during the previous three and six months was higher among those who received a university and post-graduate education (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Girls and children whose mothers had a university and post-graduate education had better attitudes toward oral hygiene. Therefore, we highly recommend more oral hygiene health education programs, especially for mothers with less education.
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