Digital Eye Strain During COVID-19 Lockdown in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
AbstractObjectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) and associated risk factors of prolonged use of electronics.
This was an online non-interventional cross-sectional studyconducted over the period of COVID curfew in Jeddah city from April to June 2020, through a questionnaire. Participants were between 20 and 60 years of age and used electronic devices.
Total 1,227 participants were recruited between 20 and 60 years of age. The majority of them were females (69.9%). Almost 1,048 participants used smartphones or laptops. More than half (54.5%) of them used electronics for more than 4 hours daily. A high symptom severity score was found in 44% of the respondents. Taking breaks during electronics use <30 minutes (P=0.018), viewing computers at a distance less than arm length (P=0.001), and the use of screen protectors (p=0.014) were significant factors related to the symptom’s severity score.
CVS was prevalent among the participants who used electronics for more than 4 hours daily. Taking breaks during electronics use, viewing computers at an appropriate distance, and the use of screen protectors were effective practices to relieve the eye symptoms severity score.
2. Zainuddin H, Isa MM. Effect of human and technology interaction: computer vision syndrome among administrative staff in a public university. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2014;4(3):38-44.
3. Ranasinghe P, Wathurapatha WS, Perera YS, Lamabadusuriya DA, Kulatunga S, Jayawardana N, et al. Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: an evaluation of prevalence and risk factors. BMC research notes. 2016;9(1):150.
4. Noreen K, Batool Z, Fatima T, Zamir T. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome and its associated risk factors among under graduate medical students of urban Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;32(3).
5. Sheedy JE. Vision problems at video display terminals: A survey of optometrists. Journal of the American Optometric Association. 1992;63(10):687.
6. Rosenfield M. Computer vision syndrome: a review of ocular causes and potential treatments. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 2011;31(5):502-15.
7. Girard BC, Lévy P. Dry eye syndrome in benign essential blepharospasm. Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie. 2019;42(10):1062-7.
8. Yan Z, Hu L, Chen H, Lu F. Computer Vision Syndrome: A widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among computer users. Computers in Human Behavior. 2008;24(5):2026-42.
9. Abudawood GA, Ashi HM, Almarzouki NK. Computer Vision Syndrome among Undergraduate Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020;2020.
10. Guillon M, Maïssa C. Tear film evaporation-effect of age and gender. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 2010;33(4):171-5.
11. Boyles M. The changing face of computer vision; new studies show that CVS is a growing concern for patients, providers and even employers. Review of Optometry. 2004;141(2):43-7.
12. Bali J, Neeraj N, Bali RT. Computer vision syndrome: A review. Journal of clinical ophthalmology and research. 2014;2(1):61.
13. Tauste A, Ronda E, Molina MJ, Seguí M. Effect of contact lens use on computer vision syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 2016;36(2):112-9.
14. Reddy SC, Low CK, Lim YP, Low LL, Mardina F, Nursaleha MP. Computer vision syndrome: a study of knowledge and practices in university students. Nepalese journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;5(2):161-8.
15. Logaraj M, Madhupriya V, Hegde SK. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in Chennai. Annals of medical and health sciences research. 2014;4(2):179-85.
16. Mashalla YJ. Impact of computer technology on health: Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). Medical Practice and Reviews. 2014;5(3):20-30.
17. Fenety A, Walker JM. Short-term effects of workstation exercises on musculoskeletal discomfort and postural changes in seated video display unit workers. Physical therapy. 2002;82(6):578-89.
18. Hassan A, MMK B. Prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) amongst the Students of Khyber Medical University, Peshawar. In Islamabad Congress of Ophthalmology. 2017;15(2):59.
19. Mowatt L, Gordon C, Santosh AB, Jones T. Computer vision syndrome and ergonomic practices among undergraduate university students. International journal of clinical practice. 2018;72(1):e13035.
20. Loh KY, Redd SC. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome. Malaysian family physician: the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia. 2008;3(3):128.
21. Al Tawil L, Aldokhayel S, Zeitouni L, Qadoumi T, Hussein S, Ahamed SS. Prevalence of self-reported computer vision syndrome symptoms and its associated factors among university students. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2020;30(1):189-95.
22. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, Mitra S, Yee RW. Computer vision syndrome: a review. Survey of ophthalmology. 2005;50(3):253-62.
23. Shantakumari N, Eldeeb R, Sreedharan J, Gopal K. Computer use and vision related problems among university students in Ajman, United Arab Emirate. Annals of medical and health sciences research. 2014;4(2):258-63.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.