Infection Prevention and Control Measures for COVID-19 among Medical Staff in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.

  • Zakaria A Kassim Department of Medicine, Mosul General Hospital, Mosul, Iraq.
  • Sharef Al-Mulaabed Department of Pediatrics, Presbyterian Medical Group, New Mexico, United States.
  • Saif W Younis Department of Public Health, Mosul, Iraq
  • Ali A Abutiheen Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq.


Objectives: To assess the adherence to IPC measures among medical staff working in Nineveh governorate during COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: A cross sectional study, using an online survey sent to different medical staff in Nineveh. The questionnaire was composed of two parts, the first included demographic information, and the second covered IPC measures. Survey was completed by medical staff witnessed COVID-19 pandemic in Nineveh governorate.
Results: The total sample was 412, of whom, 316 (77%) were males and 142 (35%) were physicians. Overall, the percentage of staff following different IPC measures was ranging from 31 % in wearing head cover, to 97% in keeping clean hands constantly. Main missed points were found in respiratory hygiene, physical distancing and self-isolation. Females were more likely to apply bandages to wounds and wearing gloves before examining patients. Compared to other medical staff, physicians were less compliant to washing hands, putting waste in designated places and wearing protective cloths. Those who work in hospitals were better compliant with sterilizing hands before entering home.
Conclusion: The adherence to IPC measures was ranging from less than one-half in wearing sterile head cover, to nearly all respondents in keeping clean hands. There is a great need to provide support as well as training in regards to IPC in Nineveh governorate city.
share this Article by


1. World Health Organization, "Coronavirus disease 2019". URL available at: 2019?gclid=Cj0KCQjwoub3BRC6ARIsABGhnyZD1crD-ZuEuTqBtpir7_9utKEepmAq0NVzuyyWtQz6tQVNpcjcogEaAluCEALw_wcB.
2. World Health Organization, "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020". URL available at: 2020
3. Worldometer, "COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic". Accessed on 3rd of July 2020. Available at:
4. Medecins Sans frontiers, "A year on from battle, Mosul's healthcare system is still in ruins" 9 July 2018. Accessed on 11 May 2020. URL available at:
5. UNICEF, "Fighting COVID-19 deepens Iraq's humanitarian crisis" 21 April 2020. Accessed on 11 May 2020. URL available at:
6. Center for disease control and prevention, "guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities" 2003 updated: July 2019. Assessed at 11 May. Available at:
7. Medicine for Humanity, "COVID-19 global pandemic". URL available at: version_4.14.20.pdf
8. Liu J, Liao X, Qian S, Yuan J, Wang F, Liu Y, et al. Community Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020. Emerging infectious diseases. 2020 Jun 17;26(6).
9. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):514-23.
10. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Jan 29.
11. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):497-506.
12. Burke RM, Midgley CM, Dratch A, Fenstersheib M, Haupt T, Holshue M, et al. Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19-United States, January-February 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020 Mar 6;69(9):245-6.
13. World Health Organization. Report of the "WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" 16-24 February 2020. URL available at: source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf
14. Center for disease control and prevention, "Coronavirus Disease 2019-Using PPE" Last accessed on June 9, 2020. URL available at:
15. Center for disease control and prevention, "Prevention & Treatment". 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. URL available at:
16. World Health Organization, "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public". URL available at:
17. Adigun A, Johnson J. Physical distancing, masks can dramatically reduce COVID-19 transmission. AbcNEWS. URL available at: .
18. Hersh E, Goodwin M. How Long Is the Incubation Period for the Coronavirus?. Healthline. March 13, 2020 URL available at:
19. World Health Organization, "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Advice for public". URL available at:
20. Nicholson L. "Thousands of health care workers infected with coronavirus, CDC report finds". Reuters News. April 15, 2020. URL available at:
21. Hamblin J. "Evidence of the superiority of female doctors" The Atlantic. Health. December 2016. URL available at:
22. US Food and drug Administration "Isolation gown" last update 11-3-2020. URL available at:
23. Better Health Channel, " Preventing healthcare associated infection". Feb 2019. URL available at:
24. Center for disease control and prevention, "Water, sanitation and environmentally-related hygiene- coughing and sneezing" updated on April 22, 2020. URL available at:
How to Cite
KASSIM, Zakaria A et al. Infection Prevention and Control Measures for COVID-19 among Medical Staff in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq.. Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 4, aug. 2020. ISSN 2413-0516. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 24 sep. 2020. doi: