Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) Fruit and its Potentiality and Superiority in -Health Benefits
AbstractThe diversity of bioactive compounds underlies the potential use and application of medicinal plants as an excellent source of dietary supplements. Fruits that are found to be rich in multi-phytochemicals are seriously being considered as ‘super’ fruits due to their unique antioxidants. Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng), is one of those ‘super’ fruits found to be rich in phytonutrients because all its fractions (i.e. aril, seeds, pulp and peel) have been widely used in folk healing and ancestral medicine. But, the entire potentiality towards the health benefits of Gac fruit is not well known or understood. Importantly, Gac fruit contains significantly higher amounts of lycopene than found in commercial tomatoes and relatively high levels of β-carotene. This review aimed to collect and summarise the scientific literature on the nutritional content, biological activities and nutraceutical value of Gac fruit. However, the literature on its biological activity against disease-causing cell damage such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer were found to be limited. The findings from this review indicate that the high bioavailability of phytonutrients found in Gac fruit and its pleasurable flavour, make it an ideal candidate for supplementation.
2. Vuong LT. Gac: a fruit from heaven. Vietnam J. 2003.
3. Chuyen H, Nguyen MH, Roach PD, Golding JB, Parks SE. Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.): a rich source of bioactive compounds and its potential health benefits. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2015;50:567–577.
4. Kha TC, Nguyen MH, Roach PD, Parks SE, Stathopoulos C. Gac fruit: nutrient and phytochemical composition, and options for processing. Food Rev Int. 2013;29:92–106.
5. Kubola J, Siriamornpun S. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng). Food Chem. 2011;127:1138–1145.
6. Aoki H, Kieu NT, Kuze N, Tomisaka K, Van Chuyen N. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:2479–2482.
7. Vuong le, Dueker SR, Murphy SP. Plasma β-Carotene and retinol concentrations of children increase after a 30-d supplementation with the fruit Momordica cochinchinensis (gac). Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:872–879.
8. Vuong LT, Franke AA, Custer LJ, Murphy SP. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.(gac) fruit carotenoids reevaluated. J Food Compos Anal. 2006;19:664–668.
9. Nhung DT, Bung PN, Ha NT, Phong TK. Changes in lycopene and beta carotene contents in aril and oil of gac fruit during storage. Food Chem. 2010;121:326–331.
10. Petchsak P, Sripanidkulchai B. Momordica cochinchinensis aril extract induced apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:5507–5513.
11. Wimalasiri D, Piva T, Huynh T. Diversity in Nutrition and Bioactivity of Momordica cochinchinensis. Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol. 2016;6:378–380.
12. Müller-Maatsch J, Sprenger J, Hempel J, Kreiser F, Carle R, Schweiggert RM. Carotenoids from gac fruit aril (Momordica cochinchinensis [Lour.] Spreng.) are more bioaccessible than those from carrot root and tomato fruit. Food Res Int. 2017;99:928–935.
13. Vuong LT. Underutilized β-Carotene–rich crops of Vietnam. Food Nutr Bull. 2000;21:173–181.
14. Nhi TT, Tuan DQ. Enzyme assisted extraction of GAC oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) from dried aril. J Food Nutr Sci. 2016;4:1–6.
15. Bharathi LK, Singh HS, Shivashankar S, Ganeshamurthy AN, Sureshkumar P. Assay of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of three dioecious Momordica species of South East Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sec B. 2014;84:31–36.
16. Tinrat S, Akkarachaneeyakorn S, Singhapol C. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (Gac fruit) ethanolic extract. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2014;5(8):3163–3169.
17. Xiao CW, Hu SH, Rajput ZI. Adjuvant effect of an extract from Cochinchina momordica seeds on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice. Front Agric China. 2007;1:90–95.
18. Rahmatullah M, Biswas A, Haq WM, Seraj S, Jahan R. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1. Chron Young Sci. 2012; 3: 212–222.
19. Chuyen HV, Roach PD, Golding JB, Parks SE, Nguyen MH. Optimisation of extraction conditions for recovering carotenoids and antioxidant capacity from Gac peel using response surface methodology. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2017;52:972–980.
20. Tsoi AY, Wong RC, Ng TB, Fong WP. First report on a potato I family chymotrypsin inhibitor from the seeds of a Cucurbitaceous plant, Momordica cochinchinensis. Biol Chem. 2004;385:185–189.
21. Tsoi AY, Ng TB, Fong WP. Antioxidative effect of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) seeds in a primary rat hepatocyte culture. J Pept Sci. 2005;11:665–668.
22. Tien PG, Kayama F, Konishi F, Tamemoto H, Kasono K, Hung NT, et al. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng). Int J Oncol. 2005;26:881–889.
23. Zheng L, Zhang YM, Zhan YZ, Liu CX. Momordica cochinchinensis seed extracts suppress migration and invasion of human breast cancer ZR-75-30 cells via down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:1105–1110.
24. Liu HR, Meng LY, Lin ZY, Shen Y, Yu YQ, Zhu YZ. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer cells via PARP and p53 signal pathways. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64:1070–1077.
25. Shen Y, Meng L, Sun H, Zhu Y, Liu H. Cochinchina momordica seed suppresses proliferation and metastasis in human lung cancer cells by regulating multiple molecular targets. Am J Chin Med. 2015;43:149–166.
26. Le A, Huynh T, Parks S, Nguyen M, Roach P. Bioactive composition, antioxidant activity, and anticancer potential of freeze-dried extracts from defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) seeds. Medicines (Basel). 2018;5. pii: E104.
27. Klungsupya P, Saenkhum J, Muangman T, Rerk-Am U, Laovitthayanggoon S, Leelamanit W. Non-cytotoxic property and DNA protective activity against H2O2 and UVC of Thai GAC fruit extracts in human TK6 cells. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2012;2:4–8.
28. Innun A. I-SEEC 2012. Proceeding-Science and Engineering. 2013;1–6.
29. Kang JM, Kim N, Kim B, Kim JH, Lee BY, Park JH, et al. Enhancement of gastric ulcer healing and angiogenesis by cochinchina Momordica seed extract in rats. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:875–881.
30. Lin ZY, Liu X, Yang F, Yu YQ. Structural characterization and identification of five triterpenoid saponins isolated from Momordica cochinchinensis extracts by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Int J Mass Spectrom. 2012;328–329:43–66.
31. Jung K, Chin YW, Yoon Kd, Chae HS, Kim CY, Yoo H, et al. Anti-inflammatory properties of a triterpenoidal glycoside from Momordica cochinchinensis in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:8–14.
32. Jung K, Lee D, Yu JS, Namgung H, Kang KS, Kim KH. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:1466–1470.
33. Jung K, Chin YW, Chung YH, Park YH, Yoo H, Min DS, et al. Anti-gastritis and wound healing effects of Momordicae Semen extract and its active component. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:126–132.
34. Sukhorum W, Sampannang A, Sripanidkulchai B, Iamsaard S. Momordica cochinchinensis (L.) Spreng. Aril Extract prevents adverse reproductive parameters of male rats induced with valproic acid. Int J Morphol. 2016;34:870–876.
35. Yu JS, Kim JH, Lee S, Jung K, Kim KH, Cho JY. Src/Syk-targeted antiinflammatory actions of triterpenoidal saponins from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) seeds. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:459–473.
36. Failla ML, Chitchumronchokchai C, Ferruzzi MG, Goltz SR, Campbell WW. Unsaturated fatty acids promote bioaccessibility and basolateral secretion of carotenoids and α-tocopherol by Caco-2 cells. Food Funct. 2014;5:1101–1112.
37. Handelman GJ, Snodderly DM, Adler AJ, Russett MD, Dratz EA.
Measurement of carotenoids in human and monkey retinas. Meth Enzymol. 1992;213:220–230.
38. Hu BJ, Hu YN, Lin S, Ma WJ, Li XR. Application of lutein and zeaxanthin in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Int J Ophthalmol. 2011;4:303–306.
39. Brazionis L, Rowley K, Itsiopoulos C, O’Dea K. Plasma carotenoids and diabetic retinopathy. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:270–277.
40. Boscia F. Current approaches to the management of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. Drugs. 2010;70:2171–2200.
41. Barot M, Gokulgandhi MR, Patel S, Mitra AK. Microvascular complications and diabetic retinopathy: recent advances and future implications. Future Med Chem. 2013;5:301–314.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.