A Comparative Study Between Icteric and Non-Icteric Hepatitis A Among Pediatric Patients Admitted to Babylon Maternity Hospital
Acute Hepatitis A Viral Hepatitis Among Pediatric Patients
AbstractObjective: Acute infections of viral hepatitis are considered as serious health threats of the populations around the world. There are diverse forms of the infections that exhibit wide range of epidemiology and natural histories. Viral hepatitis A is the most public and common viral hepatitis throughout the childhood period, particularly in the developing countries.
Methods: A cross-sectional sampling of (145) child who admitted into out-patients treatment center in Babylon Maternity Hospital. For each person, different demographic parameters, were obtained. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were obtained in patients’ sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Seroprevalence of HAV was 100% among the tested children, with a wide range of presentation mainly as fever, hepatomegaly, coluria and jaundice, while non-jaundiced are 31%. Chi-Square analysis of demographic parameters showed a high significant difference with age, residence, family history and personal hygiene among jaundiced and non-jaundiced pediatric patients (p value =0.0001) and a significant difference with nutritional status (p=0.03), while no difference with socioeconomic status and chronic drugs usage (p=0.054 and 0.559) respectively and with no gender differences.
Conclusion: Hepatitis A viral infection still to be a major problem to health in developing countries and it is a hyper-endemic in Iraq.
2- Davidson LJ, George LE, Kalevitch MV, Rudd DP. Calming the panic over hepatitis A. Nursing 2004; 34(6): 45-7.
3- Su CW, Wu JC, Huang YS, Huo TI, Huang YH, Lin CC. Comparison of clinical manifestations and epidemiology between acute hepatitis A and acute hepatitis E in Taiwan. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 17(11): 1187-91.
4- World Health Organization (WHO). Hepatitis A Surveillance and Control. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/hepatitis/whocdscsredc2007/en/index4.html. Accessed Dec 16 2009.
5- Leach C. Hepatitis A in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004; 23: 551-2.
6- Dentinger C. Emerging Infections: Hepatitis A. Am J Nurs. 2009; 109: 29-33.
7- Denson LA. Postnatal Infections, Part 1C: Other Viral Infections. In: Walker WA. Pediatric Gastroenterology Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 4th Ed. Hamilton, ON:BC Decker; 2004: 1170-8.
8- Duval B, De SG, Ochnio J, Scheifele D, Gilca V. Nationwide canadian study of hepatitis a antibody prevalence among children eight to thirteen years old. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24(6): 514-9.
9- Poovrawan Y, Chatchatee P, Chongrisaat V. Epidemiology and prophylaxis of viral hepatitis. (2002). A global perspective J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 17: 155-66.
10- Marsano LS. Hepatitis. (2003). Primary care: clinics in office practice. 30(1): 81-107.
11- Turky AM, Akram W, Al-Naaimi A, Omer A, Al- Rawi J. Analysis of Acute Viral Hepatitis (A and E) in Iraq. Global J Health Sci; 2011; 3(1): 70-6.
12- Salama I, Samy S, Shaaban F, Hassanin A, Abou-Ismail L. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among children of different socioeconomic status in Cairo. Eastern Mediterranean Health J; 2007; 13(6): 1256-64.
13- El-Zimaity DM. Acute sporadic hepatitis in an Egyptian pediatric population. American J Trop Med Hygiene. 1993; 48(3): 372-6.
14- Darwish MA. High seroprevalence of Hepatitis A, B, C and E virus in residents in an Egyptian village in the Nile Delta, a pilot study. American J Trop Med Hygiene. 1996; 54(6): 554-8.
15- Zaytoun SS. Immunity status against HAV among school children in Alexandria. Alexandria, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alexandria. MSc thesis; 2003.
16- Antaki N, Kebbewar MK. Hepatitis A seroprevalence rate in Syria. Tropical doctor. 2000; 30(2): 99-101.
17- Yassin K. The epidemiology of hepatitis A infection in Palestine: a universal vaccination programme is not yet needed. 2001; 127(2): 335-9.
18- Taghavi SA, Hosseini Asl MK, Talebzadeh M, Eshraghian A. Seroprevalence study of hepatitis A virus in Fars province, southern Iran. Hepat Mon; 2011; 11(4): 285-8.
19- Blum HE. History and global burden of viral hepatitis. Dig Dis 2016; 34: 293-302.
20- Rafeey M, Shoaran M. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis A in children in Tabriz, Iran. J Anal Res Clin Med, 2014; 2(4): 183-6.
21- Kazemi SA, Mahram M, Koosha A, Amirmoghaddami H. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in 7-10 year-old children. Iran J Pediatr; 2007; 17(1): 47-51.
22- Ataei B, Javadi AA, Nokhodian Z, Kassaeian N, Shoaei P, Farajzadegan Z. HAV in Isfahan province: a population-based study. Trop Gastroenterol; 2008; 29(3): 160-2.
23- Pharm B, Duval B, De SG, Gilca V, Tricco AC, Ochnio J. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A infection in a low endemicity country: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis., 2005; 5: 56.
24- Cho SE, Kim Y. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis a in South Korea: a nationwide study by the Eone Reference Laboratory. J Epidemiol; 2013; 23(4): 270-4.
25- Lee A, Lim HS, Nam CM, Song SM, Yoon HR, Lee KR. An epidemiological analysis of hepatitis A virus serologic markers during the recent four years in Korea. Korean J Lab Med; 2009; 29(6): 563-569.
26- Joshi N, Yr NK, Kumar A. Age related seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus in Hyderabad, India. Tropical Gastroenterol; 2000; 21(2): 63-5.
27- Rakesh P, Sherin D, Sankar H, Shaji M, Subhagan S, Salila S. Investigating a community-wide outbreak of hepatitis a in India. J Glob Infect Dis; 2014; 6(2): 59-64.
28- Schreiber RA, Pashankar D. Jaundice in Older Children and Adolescents. Official J American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009.
29- Jeong SH, Lee HS. Hepatitis A: clinical manifestations and management. Intervirol; 2010; 53: 15-9.
30- Ryan KJ, Ray CG. Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th. ed.). McGraw Hill. 2004; 541-4.
31- El-Zanaty F, Way AA. Egypt demographic and health survey 2000. Calverton, Maryland, USA, Ministry of Health and Population, Egypt, National Population Council and ORC Marco, 2001.
32- Mall ML. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A infection in India: Changing pattern. Indian J Gastroenterol, 2001; 20(4): 132-5.
33- Koslap-Petraco MB, Shub M, Judelsohn R; Hepatitis A: Disease burden and current childhood vaccination strategies in the United States. J Pediatr Health Care. 2008; 22: 3–11.
34- Narkewicz MR, Dell Olio D, Karpen SJ. Pattern of diagnostic evaluation for the causes of pediatric acute liver failure: an opportunity for quality improvement. J Pediatr; 2009; 155: 801.
35- Lee WM, Stravitz RT, Larson AM. Introduction to the revised American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Position Paper on acute liver failure. Hepatology; 2012; 55: 965.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.