Effect of Clenbuterol using as weight loose on liver enzymes and lipids profile

  • Wafa Saleh Abdulredha Clinical Sciences Branch, Collage of Pharmacy, Thi-Qar University, Thi-Qar, Iraq.

Abstract

Objective: The current study is considered at the effect of 3 month using Clenbuterol as weight loose in 22 healthy men comparing them with 30 healthy men who do not take Clenbuterol.
Methods: samples of blood were taken from (52) healthy subjects who were divided into three groups: (12 subjects) who are not training and not taking any medication (C) ,they are supposed to be the control group ; (18 subjects) training not taking Clenbuterol (T No CLEN) group and (22 subjects) training and taking Clenbuterol (T+CLEN )group. AST, ALT, ALP, Lipase enzyme, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured .
Results: it is found that there is elevated in AST,ALT and lipase enzymes in(T+CLEN) and (T No CLEN) groups, but the ALP enzyme increased in (T+CLEN) group only. TG level was increased more in (T+CLEN) group. On the other hand ,HDL raised but LDL lowered its level in (T No CLEN) group.  For TC and LDL levels, it is found that they were decreased in (T No CLEN) group and were not that much decreased in (T+CLEN) group when compared with (T No CLEN) group.
Conclusion: it is concluded that Clenbuterol using as weight loose do not affect in a good way on body because it raised the level of liver enzyme which means there was over loading on it. In addition to that, it increased the TG in blood stream which is harmful to human and health in general.
share this Article by

References

1. Baronti A, Grieco A. and Vibelli C. Oral NAB 365 (clenbuterol) and terbutaline in chronic obstructive lung disease: a double-blind, two-week study. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol.1980;18(1): 21-25.
2. Henry A. Spiller, Kyla J. James, Steven Scholzen, and Douglas J. Borys. A Descriptive Study of Adverse Events from Clenbuterol Misuse and Abuse for Weight Loss and Bodybuilding. Substance Abuse. 2013;34:306-312.
3. Couet W, Girault J, Reigner BG, Ingrand I, Bizouard J, Acerbi D, Chiesi P and Fourtillan JB. Steady-state bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ambroxol and clenbuterol administered alone and combined in a new oral formulation. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol. 1989;27:467–472.
4. Hida W, Sakurai M, Ichinose M, C Shindoh, Tatsuya Chonan, Y Kikuchi, Hideshi Inoue and T Takishima Effect of clenbuterol on peripheral airway obstruction in bronchial asthma. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 1985;9:616–625.
5. Chan TY. Health hazards of Clenbuterol residues in food. J. Toxocol. Clin. Toxicol . 1999; 37:517-519.
6. Perez-Lamas F, Sastre TF, Zamora S. Influence of dietary protein level on growth: effect of clenbuterol. Comp Biochem Physiol [A]. 1991; 99: 671-5.
7. Perez-Lamas F, Zamora S. The influence of clenbuterol on growth in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. [A]. 1991; 99: 242-4
8. Brett J, Andrew D, Jared B. Clenbuterol toxicity: a NSW poisons information centre experience. MJA. 2014;200(4): 219-221.
9. Sillence MN, Matthews ML, Spiers WG, Pegg GG, Lindsay DB. Effects of Clenbuterol, ICT118551, and sotalol on the growth of cardiac and skeletal muscle and on 2-adrenoceptor density in female rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 1991; 333: 449-53.
10. Palmer RM, Delday MI, McMillan DN, Noble BS, Bain P. Maltin CA. Effects of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, fenbufen, on clenbuterol induced hypertrophy of cardiac and skeletal muscle of rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 1990; 101: 835-8.
11. MacLennan PA, Edwards RH. Effects of clenbuterol and propranolol on muscle mass. Evidence that Clenbuterol stimulates muscle beta adrenoceptors to induce hypertrophy. Biochem. J. 1989; 264: 573-9.
12. Claeys MC, Mulvaney DL, McCarthy FD, Gore MT, Marple DN, Sartin JL. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and growth hormone secretion in young lambs treated with clenbuterol. J. Animal Sci. 1989; 67: 2245-54.
13. Huw Perry MB. Clenbuterol: a medal in tablet form?. Br. J. Sport Med. 1993; 27(2): 141.
14. Parr MK, Koehler K, Geyer H, Guddat S and Schanzer W. Clenbuterol marketed as dietary supplement. Biomed. Chromatogr. 2008;22:298–300.
15. Goldeberg RJ, Kaplan LA and Boucher LJ. Physicians’ attentiveness to medication use as etiology of weight loss. Long term care interface. 2005; 6:20-3.
16. Whitsett TL, Manion CV and Wilson MF. Cardiac, pulmonary and neuromuscular effects of clenbuterol and terbutaline comparedwith placebo. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1998;12:195–200.
17. Duabert GP, Mabasa VH, Leung VWY and Aaron C. Acute Clenbuterol overdose resulting in supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. J. Med. Toxicol. 2007;3:56–60.
18. Zlak,N; Daniel, K. and Zivojin,S. Clenbuterol toxicity in a young male athlete. Toxin reviews. 2018; 37(3).
19. Mitchell GA and Dunnavan G. Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists in the United States. J. Anim. Sci. 1998; 76: 208-211.
20. Friedwald, W. Clinical guide to laboratory test. Clin. Chemi. 1972;18(499).
21. Jiang, GL, Gu YD, Zhang LY, Shen LY, Yu C and Xu JG. Randomized, double blinded and placebo-controlled trial of clenbuterol in denervated muscle atrophy. Int. Scholarly Res. Network Pharmaceut. 2011;2011:981254.
22. Huckins DS and Lemons MF. Myocardial ischemia associated with Clenbuterol abuse: report of two cases. J. Emerg. Med. 2013; 44:444–449.
23. Duncan, N D, D A Williams, and G S Lynch. Deleterious effects of chronic Clenbuterol treatment on endurance and sprint exercise performance in rats. Clinical Science. 2000;98(3):339-347.
24. Zuo L, Zhou T, Pannell BK, Ziegler A and Best M. Biological and physiological role of reactive oxygen species-the good, the best and the ugly. Acta. Physiol. (Oxf). 2015; 214: 329-348.
25. Zuo L, Hallman AH, Yousif MK and Chien MT. Oxidative stress, respiratory muscle dysfunction and potential therapeutics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Front. Biol. 2012; 7:507.
26. Power NTB, Nelson WB and Hudson MB. Exercise induced oxidative stress in humans: cause and consequences. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2011;51: 942-950.
27. Gojmerac T, Pleadin J, Zuric M, Mirko L and Stipica C. Effect of repeated growth promoting doses of Clenbuterol on the hepatic function of female pigs. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 2002;44(5): 269-271.
28. Zhuang Z, Zhao Y, Wu Q, Li M, Liu H, Sun L, Gao W and wang D. Adverse Effects from Clenbuterol and Ractopamine on Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the Underlying Mechanism. PLOS ONE J. 2014; 9(1): e85482.
29. Praphatsorn P, Thong-Ngam D, Kulaputana O and Klaikeaw N. Effects of intense exercise on biochemical and histological changes in rat liver and pancreas. Asian Biomedi. 2010;4(4): 619-625.
30. Fojt E, Ekelund L-G and Hultman E. Enzyme activities in hepatic venous blood under strenous physical exercise. Pflugers Arch. 1976;361:287-96.
31. Rowell LB, Blackmon JR and Bruce RA. Indocyanine green clearance and estimated hepatic blood flow during mild to maximal exercise in upright man. J. Clin. Invest. 1964;43:1677-90.
32. Caraceni P, Rosenblum ER, Van Thiel DH, and Borle AB. Reoxygenation injury in isolated rat hepatocytes: relation to oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation. Am. J. Physiol. 1994; 266:G799-806.
33. Steinbacher P and Eckl P. Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle. Biomolecules J. 2015;5:356-377.
34. Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG and Zderic TW. Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential covcept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 2004; 32(4): 161-166.
35. Arner P, Lithell H, Wahrenberg H and Bronnegard M. Expression of lipoprotein lipase in different human subcutaneous adipose tissue regions. J. Lipid Res. 1991; 32: 423-429.
36. Fan J, Unoki H, Kojima N, Sun H, Shimoyamada H, Deng H, Okazaki M, Shikama H, Yamada N, and Watanabe T. Overexpression of lipoprotein lipase in transgenic rabbits inhibits diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. J. Biol. Chem. 2001;276:40071–40079. [PubMed: 11477088]
37. Shimada M, Ishibashi S, Gotoda T, Kawamura M, Yamamoto K, Inaba T, Harada K, Ohsuga J, Perrey S, Yazaki Y and Yamada N. Overexpression of human lipoprotein lipase protects diabetic transgenic mice from diabetic hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1995; 15:1688–1694. [PubMed: 7583545]
38. Holm C , Langin D , Manganiello V , Belfrage P and Degerman E. Regulation of hormone-sensative lipase activity in adipose tissue. Methods Enzymol. 1997;286: 45-67.
39. Stralfors P , Bjorgell P and Belfrage P. Hormonal regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase in intact adipocytes: identification of phosphorlytated sites and effects on the phosphorylation by lipolytic of hormones and insulin..Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1984;81: 3317-3321
40. Minato K. The effect of chronic exercise on the rat Pancreas. Int. J. Pancreatol. 2000;27:151-6.
41. Gorski J, Oscai LB and Palmer WK.Hepatic lipid metabolism in exercise and training. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. 1990; 22:213-21.
42. Bey L and Hamilton MT. Suppression of skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity during physical inactivity: A molecular reason to maintain daily low-intensity activity. J. Physiol. 2003;551:673–682. [PubMed: 12815182]
43. Hamilton MT, Etienne J, McClure WC, Pavey BS, and Holloway AK. Role of local contractile activity and muscle fiber type on LPL regulation during exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 1998;275:E1016–E1022. [PubMed: 9843744]
44. Hadi HD and Ali AH. Effect of Clenbuterol drug in some physiological parameters in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculs). Baghdad Sci. J. 2016; 13(4): 639-648.
45. Buyse J, Decuypere E, Huyghebaert G and Herremans M. The effect of Clenbuterol supplementation on growth performance and on plasma hormone and metabolite levels of broilers. Poultry Sci. 1990;70:993-1002.
46. Sharma S and Garg A. Clenbuterol induced changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels of gastrocnemius, pectorials and heart of rat under work induced stress. Indian J. Exper. Bio. 2003; 41:1452-1455.
47. Anh NTB and THuan NTM. Evaluation of Clenbuterol-induced changes in blood biochemical parameters in white mice. Pharm. Sci. Asia. 2018; 45(1): 45-53.
48. Ricks CA, Dalrymple RH, Baker PK and Ingle DL. Use of a β- agonist to alter fat and muscle disposition in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 1984; 59:1247–1255.
Published
2019-09-14
How to Cite
ABDULREDHA, Wafa Saleh. Effect of Clenbuterol using as weight loose on liver enzymes and lipids profile. Iraq Medical Journal, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 2, sep. 2019. ISSN 2521-8492. Available at: <http://www.jocms.org/index.php/imj/article/view/641>. Date accessed: 20 nov. 2019.
Section
Articles