Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Boswellia sacra and Origanum majorana against Mice Lymphocytes and RD cell lines in vitro

  • Mohammed A. Jasim Biology dept., University Of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq.
  • Farooq M. Ibrahim UCL school of Life Sciences, Universtat zu Koln, Germany.
  • Nabaa H. Khalifa Al-Khaledia education section, Ministry of Education, Al-Anbar, Iraq

Abstract

Objective: Herbs and plant extracts were common selected substances that has medicinal use and was used a long time ago to protect or to heal people in need, many of these plants has wide effect on different biological systems including humans, animals, and bacteria. This study about the potential effect of Boswellia sacra and Origanum majorana as an anti-tumor agent.
Methods: Two plant were extracted resulting aqueous or alcoholic extractions depending on the solvent that used for extraction. Soxhlet apparatus had used for methanolic extraction while stirring distilled water were used for aqueous extraction on a magnetic stirrer.  
Results: Mice RD (ATCC® CCL­136™) cells inhibited with a different pattern, five concentrations used in the study. The 50mg/ml of all extracts were exhibit almost the same inhibition activity. Whereas the activity of aqueous B. sacra extract was more active at 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12 mg/ml in comparison with methanolic B. sacra extract which had the most inhibition activity by killing most of studied cells at 6.25 mg/ml. On the other hand aqueous O. majorana extract exhibits an inhibitory activity higher than methanolic extract after the 50 mg/ml, which may due to the polar constituent of extracted substances while in 12.5 mg/ml, was the best of relatives. The effect of methanolic extract decreased in diluted concentrationsAqueous extract of B. sacra had a superior activity compared with methanolic extract, which took the same effectiveness with less inhibitory effect, but in 6.25 mg/ml was the point where methanolic had the best activity among all extracts.
Conclusion: This study suggests using aqueous extract instead of methanolic extracts that affects and inhibits the cancerous cell line that would be a good replacement of other drugs on patients.
 
share this Article by

References

1- Jasim, M. A. (2013). Comparison Study of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and selected antibiotics against infectious bacteria. Anbar J. Vet. Sci. 6 (2): 113-116.
2- Eloff J.N. (1998). A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts for bacteria, Planta Medica, 64: 711-713.
3- Atta, U.R.; Naz, H.; Makhmoor, F.T.; Yasin, A.; Fatima, N.; Ngounou, F.N.; Kimbu, S.F.; Sondengam, B.L.; Choudhary, M.I. (2005). Bioactive constituents from Boswellia papyrifera. J. Nat. Prod., 68, 189–193.
4- Agurumurthy, K.T., Achandan, N, Javed, A.; Aashwini, L.S., Nadeem Khan, B.; Shaheen, C. & Baranwal, D. (2013). Synergistic antibacterial effect of essential oils of Nigella Sativa and Salvadora Persica on human pathogens. Intern. J. of Adv. Biol. Res. 3(4): 567-571.
5- Cowan, M.M. (1999) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-82.
6- Ernst, E. (2008). Frankincense: Systematic review. Brit. Med. J. 337, 1439–1441.
7- Al-Harrasi, A.; Ali, L.; Hussain, J.; Rehman, N.U.; Mehjabeen; Ahmed, M.; Al-Rawahi, A. (2014). Analgesic effects of crude extracts and fractions of Omani frankincense obtained from traditional medicinal plant Boswellia sacra on animal models. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 7, S485–S490.
8- Al-Saidi, S.; Rameshkumar, K.B.; Hisham, A.; Sivakumara, N. and Al-Kindya, S. (2012). Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of four commercial grades of Omani luban, the oleo-gum resin of Boswellia sacra Flueck., Chemistry & Biodiversity. 9: 615-624.
9- Tucker, A.O. (1986). Frankincense and myrrh. Econ Bot 40:425–433.
10- Al-Harrasi, A.; Ali, L.; Ur Rehman, N.; Hussain, H.; Hussain, J.; Al-Rawahi, A.; Langley, G.J.; Wells, N.J. and Abbas, G. (2013b). Nine triterpenes from Boswellia sacra Flückiger and their chemotaxonomic importance, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 51: 113–116.
11- Javed, A.; Venkatesha, R.T.; Sagar, S.; Parameswaraiah, M.V., Ganguly, D.; Murugan, S. and Ashwini L.S. (2015). In vitro Evaluation of the Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Boswellia Sacra and Nigella Sativa, essential oil on human pathogenic microbial strains (2015). Am. J. Phyto. Clin. Therap., 3(2): 185-192.
12- Ni, X.; Suhail, M.M; Yang, Q.; Cao, A.; Fung, K.M.; Postier, R.G.; Woolley, C.; Young, G.; Zhang, J. and Lin, H.K. (2012). Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydro-distillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cancer cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model. BMC Complem. Alter. Medicine. 12:253.
13- Kirste, S.; Treier, M.; Wehrle, S.J.; Becker, G.; Abdel-Tawab, M.; Gerbeth, K.; Hug, M.J.; Lubrich, B.; Grosu, A.L.; Momm, F. (2011). Boswellia serrata acts on cerebral edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors: a prospective, randomized, placebocontrolled, double-blind pilot trial. Cancer, 117(16):3788–3795.
14- Suhail, M.M.; Wu, W.; Cao, A.; Mondalek, F.G.; Fung, K.M. Shih, P. T. Fang, Y. T.; Woolley, C.; Young G. and Lin. HK. (2011). Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 11: 129.
15- Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C.M. (2007). Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. Phytomedicine, 14:508-516.
16- Nardonia, S.; Giovanelli, S.; Pistelli, L.; Mugnaini, L.; Profili, G.; Pisseri, F.; Mancianti, F. (2015). In Vitro Activity of twenty commercially available, plant-derived essential oils against selected dermatophyte species. Nat. Prod. Commun. 10, 1473–1478.
17- Asad, M.; Alhomoud, M. Proulcerogenic (2016) effect of water extract of Boswellia sacra oleo gum resin in rats. Pharm. Biol. 54: 225–230.
18- Al-Harrasi, A.; Ali, L.; Rehman, N.U.; Hussain, J.; Hussain, H.; Al-Rawahi, A. and Rizvi, T.S. (2013a). α-Ethoxy- β-boswellic Acid (I) and Nizwanone (II), a New Boswellic Acid Derivative and a New Triterpene, Respectively, from Boswellia sacra. Chem. Biodiversity. 10 (8), 1501-1506.
19- Mannino, G.; Occhipinti, A. and Maffei, M.E. (2016). Quantitative Determination of 3-O-Acetyl-11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (AKBA) and Other Boswellic Acids in Boswellia sacra Flueck. (syn. B. carteri Birdw) and Boswellia serrata Roxb, Molecules. 21: 1329-1337.
20- Al-Harrasi, A.; Ali, L.; Ceniviva, E.; Al-Rawahi, A.; Hussain, J.; Hussain, H.; Rehman, N.U.; Abbas, G.; Al-Harrasi, R. (2013c). Antiglycation and antioxidant activities and HPTLC analysis of Boswellia sacra aleogum aesin: The sacred Frankincense. Trop. J. Pharm. Res. 12, 597–602.
21- Ali, L.; Hussain, j.; Al-Rawahi, A. and Al-Harrasi, A. (2014). Two new and four known triterpenoids from Boswellia sacra Fluckiger Rec. Nat. Prod. 8(4): 407-411.
22- Bruneton, J. (2009). Pharmacognosie - Phytochimie, plantes médicinales, 4e éd., revue et augmentée, Paris, Tec & Doc -Éditions médicales internationales, 1288 p.
23- Alizadeh, A.; Khosh-khui, M.; Javidnia, K.; Firuzi, O. and Jokar, S.M. (2011). Chemical composition of the essential oil, total phenolic content and Antioxidant activity in Origanum Majorana L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology, 5(8): 2326-2331.
24- Guerra-Boone, L.; Alvarez-Román, R.; Salazar-Aranda, R.; Torres-Cirio, A.; Rivas-Galindo, V.M.; de Torres, M.W.; González, G. and Pérez-López, L.A. (2015). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 28, 1(Suppl):363-369.
25- Mathew, P.A. and Padmanabhan, M.N. (2015). Quality control profiling, antifungal and in vivo cytotoxic potential of Origanum majorana L., Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci., 6(2): 634 – 640.
26- Ibrahim, F. A.; Bellail, A.A.; Hamad, A.M. and Mecherara-Idjeri, S. (2017). Antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of the essential oil of Origanum majorana L. growing in Libya. Ijppr.Human, 8 (3): 1-11.
27- Moussaid, M.; Elamrani, A.; Berhal, C.; Moussaid, H.; Bourhim, N. and Benaissa, M. (2012). Comparative evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity between two plants from the Lamiaceae family: Marrubium vulgare (L.) and Origanum majorana (L.), International Journal of Natural Products Research, 1 (1): 11-13.
28- Choi M.-Y.and Rhim, T.J. (2008) Antimicrobial Effect of Oregano (Origanum majorana L.) Extract on Food-borne Pathogens. Korean J. Plant Res., 21(5): 352-356.
29- Olfa, B.; Aouadi, M.; Abbassi, M. S. and Ben Nasri, A. M. (2016). Chemical content, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of essential oil extract from Tunisian Origanum majorana L. cultivated under saline condition. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 29 (6):1951-1958.
30- Ez zoubi Y., Abdellah, F.; Chaimae, R.; Oumokhtar B., and El Ouali L. A. (2016). Antibacterial Efficacy of Essential Oils from Three Moroccan Plants (Lavandula officinalis, Origanum majorana and Thymus vulgaris) Against Clinical Isolates, International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research, 7(6): 360-366.
31- Marques, J.L.; Volcão, L.M.; Funck, G.D.; Kroning, I.S. da Silva, W.P.; Fiorentini, Â. M. and Ribeiro, G. A. (2015), Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum majorana L. against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from poultry meat. Industrial Crops and Products. 77: 444–450.
32- El-Akhala, F.; C, Guemmouhc, R. ; Maniard, S.; Taghzoutie, K.; El Ouali Lalami, A. (2016). Larvicidal activity of essential oils of thymus vulgaris and origanum majorana (lamiaceae) against of the malaria vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Int. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 8(3): 372-376.
33- Mosmann, T. (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol. Methods. 65(1-2):55-63.
Published
2019-05-05
How to Cite
JASIM, Mohammed A.; IBRAHIM, Farooq M.; KHALIFA, Nabaa H.. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Boswellia sacra and Origanum majorana against Mice Lymphocytes and RD cell lines in vitro. Iraq Medical Journal, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 1, may 2019. ISSN 2521-8492. Available at: <http://www.jocms.org/index.php/imj/article/view/584>. Date accessed: 16 june 2019.
Section
Articles